Day Tour in Tashkent

Day Tour in Tashkent

Tashkent, Urgench, Khiva

Tashkent, Urgench, Khiva

Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand

Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand

ART & CRAFTS IN MODERN UZBEKISTAN

ART & CRAFTS IN MODERN UZBEKISTAN
 * KOKAND * RISHTAN * FERGANA * MARGILAN *  2 DAYS / 1 NIGHT


Samarkand Day Tour

Samarkand Day Tour

LEGENDARY CAPITALS OF CENTRAL ASIA

LEGENDARY CAPITALS OF CENTRAL ASIA 
 * BUKHARA *  SHAKHRISABZ * SAMARKAND *  5 DAYS / 4 NIGHTS

 

Tour in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan 3

Tour in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan 3Tashkent, Khiva, Bukhara, Samarkand, Bishkek, Issyk-Kul, Karakol, Tamga
13 day

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 2

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 2Tashkent, Khiva, Bukhara, Samarkand, Fergana, Rishtan, Margilan, Osh, Bishkek, Issyk-Kul
15 days

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 1

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 1Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand, Bishkek, Son-Kul, Issyk-Kul
12 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 1

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 1Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Merv, Ashgabat, Dashoguz, Kunya-Urgench, Khiva, Urgench
11 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 2

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 2Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Gonur (Margush), Merv, Ashgabat, Kunya-Urgench, Khiva
12 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 3

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 3Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Turkmenabad, Koytendag, Kuguitang, Merv, Ashgabat, Gas crater, Kunya-Urgench, Khiva
14 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 4

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 4Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Merv, Ashgabat, Darvaza, Dashoguz, Khiva
12 days

 

Uzbekistan - the ancient cradle of human culture.

Since the days of antiquity here, the vast expanses of fertile valleys, great rivers, the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, in mountain ravines, on the steppe grasslands interwoven historical fate of the many variety of ethnic composition, household, religion, level of cultural development of peoples. They faced, engaging with each other in a brutal fight, mixed, formed tribal alliances, solder a powerful conglomerate of nomadic and sedentary empires, created the treasures of science, art, architecture, literature, came into decline, sinking into obscurity again rise from the ruins and fires to life.

They, these ancient inhabitants of the country and their distant descendants - Uzbeks, Tajiks, Turkmens, ka-Zahi, Karakalpaks, Kirghiz had a marked influence on world history.

Nations and tribes that inhabited Central Asia in the past, first mentioned in the Avesta - the sacred book of the ancient religion of Iran - Zoroastrians, written with gold ink on parchment, carefully dressed in leather. We regret to note that most of the lyrics of "Avesta" was not kept.

Consists of "Avesta" of a set of religious teachings, prayers and hymns of Zoroastrianism - religion, the basic dogma of which was the doctrine of the eternal struggle between good and evil, light and darkness. At the same time, the Zoroastrian holy book contains valuable information about the period of disintegration of the primitive socio-economic structure and the emergence in Central Asia, the first state formations. "Avesta" was created over many centuries. But what is especially interesting for us, the early part of it were written in the second quarter of the first millennium AD. er. between the rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya, ie in the region, one of the largest of which was always Samarkand. Further replenishment of "Avesta" occurred in Media, Antropotene (now Azerbaijan), and especially in Fars (Iran).

But anyway, obscure writers of several chapters of the sacred book live somewhere or in the Samarkand, or near it. This gives many specific details and facts given in the Avesta, of exceptional interest. And indeed, we find it a colorful picture of Central Asia, period VIII-VII centuries BC. AD. like the country "... where the high mountains abound in pastures and water, giving ample fodder for cattle, where the deep lakes with large water surface and navigable rivers with extensive beds of ...". "Avesta" glorifies the work of farmers, already created at that time in Central Asia, the high culture of irrigated agriculture. Pages Avesta contain many details about the organization of society, income inequality within the community, the cults, the development of productive forces, crafts and cities. Are those social groups of local people as priests, warriors, farmers and artisans.

"Who sows corn, sows that justice," - reads the verse "Avesta".

Ancient state formations in Central Asia were Bactria, Khorezm and Sogdiana.Sogdiana occupied valley Zarafshan and swimming pool nearby Kashkadarya. The chief city of Sogdiana and was Marakanda - Samarkand. Etymology of the name "Samarkand" is not scientifically established. Oriental authors felt that the first part of the word "Samar" - is the name of the founder or the conqueror of the city. History, however, does not know that name. The second part of the name "Candidate" - a variation of the word "kent", ie village, town (cf. Tashkent, Penjikent Parkent, Pskent, etc.). Scientists XI century AD, Biruni, and Mahmud Kashgar tried to interpret the name of the city of Samarkand as a distortion of the word "semizkent," that is rich village.


CAPITAL SOGHD
The history of the oldest public education tions in Central Asia, including Sogdiana, to the VI century AD, little is reflected in historical works and documents. Information available to historians, are semi-legendary character. Reliably only that the VI to IV century BC. er. Central Asian nations were under the rule of Persian kings of the Achaemenid dynasty. "Father of History" Herodotus says that the ruler of Persia "king of kings," Cyrus turned his hordes to the east of the Caspian Sea and conquered Bactria and Sogdiana.

On the conquest of Sogdiana, in particular, indirect evidence sources attributing Cyrus Kiropolya foundation of the city in the valley of the Syr Darya, near the northern borders of Sogdiana.

In the Central Asian land, Cyrus made a few trips. The last of them for the mighty conqueror ended tragically. According to the story of Herodotus, the invasion was directed against the Achaemenid warlike nomads - Massagetae, chief of which was a woman named Tomaris. Tribesmen have proclaimed her his queen after the death of her husband.

Cyrus sent ambassadors to the queen with honeyed words, proposing to marry him.Tomaris, thinking that the only desire Cyrus - is to conquer and subjugate Massagetae not adopted the Persian ambassadors. When he saw that his trick had failed, Cyrus, devastating all-around, went to the Araks (p obviously. Amu Darya).Tomaris called Cyrus to stop the bloodshed. Nevertheless, the Persian king treacherously attacked the camp Massagetae. Enraged such perfidy Tomaris gathered his cavalry and marched on the enemy, giving the oath drink their fill with blood insatiable Achaemenids.

Herodotus depicts in detail a battle that lasted many hours. Most of the Persian hordes were destroyed. In combat, killed himself a mighty king of the Persians, Cyrus.His head Tomaris ordered to dip into a leather bottle full of still steaming with blood, in order to "drink" its insatiable conqueror.

Fierce fighting Central Asian peoples against foreign invaders did not stop throughout the centuries of Achaemenid rule. In defending their freedom and independence, the local population showed striking examples of courage. The ancient writer polyenes with great respect tells of the heroism of Saka shepherd Chirac.

When the Persian King Darius I (521-486 years. BC. Er.) Invaded, led a huge army of the steppe nomadic Sakas, brave Chirac himself wounded, disfigured his face and, as such got drenched in blood, to the Persian camp. He said Darius, what happened to him so badly did his countrymen, and that he is eager for revenge. Chirac has offered to hold the Persians on trails, known to him alone to capture the Saks by surprise. Jerking burning hatred for the enemy, the courageous shepherd, after a week started the path of enemies in the waterless desert, for which he paid with his life. Tortured horrible torture, Chirac, in dying, flung in the face of the invaders: "And yet the victory will remain with me. Dooming the Persians to his death from thirst and hunger, I otvozhu misfortune of their tribesmen.

The bitter, self-sacrificing struggle of the peoples of Central Asia, however, has not led to the expulsion of the Persian satraps. In the famous multilingual inscriptions in southern Iran on a rock Behistun Persian ruler, king of kings, lord of the world, Darius, listing the nations subject to him, calls the inhabitants of ancient Sogdiana, Bactria, Khorezm. This inscription framed by the magnificent sculptured figures, among them a picture of himself "king of kings", a triumph over his enemies, is dated 519 BC. er.Joining the Achaemenid state conquered by force of arms Sogdiana bore the brunt of brutal oppression of the conquerors. The population was forced to pay a "king of kings" huge tax.

However, even in this dark period in its history the peoples of Central Asia were able to create amazing material and cultural values. In the valley of Zarafshan continued to evolve and improve agriculture based on irrigation. High perfection reached the horticulture and viticulture. Becoming increasingly important handicraft production, particularly ceramics, as well as the art of building. In the nearby mountain ranges Karatau Nurata, Gobdun-tau, tau Bukan-wide was mined gold, copper, iron, precious stones, including turquoise. In Sogdiana flourished settlements of urban type, of which Samarkand was undoubtedly the largest and busiest commercial and cultural center.

Anyway, in the era of Achaemenid Samarkand already existed as a fully formed and lived full-fledged economic and cultural life of the city, who was already the capital of Sogdiana.

 

Alexander the Great and Spitaman
In the spring of 329 BC. er. armed from head to foot Greek-Macedonian army led by Alexander made within fifteen days the difficult transition from northern India through the eternal snow-covered Hindu Kush and invaded the territory of Central Asia.

Having crossed over the Amu Darya, the Greeks moved to Marakanda and after hard fighting captured the city. Leaving a garrison here, Alexander of Macedon marched to the east - to the Ferghana Valley. But the way the Greek conquerors was not easy.Freedom-Sogdians provided stiff resistance. In defending its independence, the people rose as one. Fierce fighting continued in Sogdiana three years. Center of resistance was Marakanda.

Inspirer of the uprising was a famous hero of the peoples of Central Asia Spitamen.

In the spring of 327 Alexander besieged fortress "Sogd rock", which was, apparently due apparently, somewhere on the southern slopes of the Hissar Mountains. The rebels had Alexander fierce resistance. "The Rock" was unassailable, and its advocates have decided to fight till the end. On the proposal of the Macedonians to surrender, they proudly answered:

"Let Alexander had himself will produce winged warriors who can take off the cliff. Usually the same people about it and think of nothing."

Calling Highlanders hurt the feelings of the commander. He made a proclamation that those soldiers who will be able to climb the cliff, will receive a high reward. The siege began. Group of soldiers with great difficulty, managed to climb the steep cliff and go to the rear of the defenders. The fortress was forced to surrender.

In the prisoner was captured by many women and children. Among the captives was his daughter and Aksiarta, associate Spitaman, amazingly beautiful girl named Roxanne.

Alexander saw her and fell in love. He did not want to hurt her as a prisoner, and considered worthy of the name of his wife. " With this step, Alexander drew to his side to know the local and strengthened in this way its dominance over Sogdiana.

The heroic uprising Sogdian was brutally suppressed. Treacherously killed and the leader of the rebels, brave fighter against the foreign yoke, a great sogdiets Spitamen.

Historian Quintus Curtius describes the death of Spitaman:

"Spitamen passionately loved his wife and carried with him throughout her viciously relocating flight and a new exile. Weary of misfortunes, she tried to persuade him to female flattery, that he left the flight and tried to surrender to the winner of the Alexander ... But he said that he prefers the death of prisoner ... The feast, seeing her husband drunk and drowned in sleep, his wife took out hidden under a dress sword, cut off his head and splattered with blood, gave her servant, partner in crime. It is accompanied by not removing the bloody clothes, she appeared in the Macedonian camp ... and referred to Alexander's head Spitaman. Another ancient author Arrian relates the death of Spitaman with the actions of the nomads, who first plundered the wagon train leader of rebel troops, and then, having received news of the successful promotion of Greek troops in the desert, killing Spitaman and sent his head to Alexander.

The noble figure bravely fought for the happiness of the people of the great commander Sogdians Spitaman whose life ended so tragically, went down in history, covered with glory.

Early death of Alexander of Macedon (323 BC. Er.) Caused bloody infighting among the Greek commanders. The struggle for power, which were drawn and the Central Asian nations, led to the disintegration of the empire created by Alexander and the formation of a series of individual states. Around 306 BC. er. Territory of Bactria, Sogdiana and Margiana became part of the Seleucid state, so named after its founder Seleucus I (312-280 years. BC. er.).


Ancient Sogdiana
Co-ruler of Seleucus in the East by his son Antiochus, half sogdiets (his mother was the daughter of Apana Spitaman). Marakanda ancient, ruined during the wars and rebellions, beginning with the Seleucids to recover. In the historical sources about the state of the era of direct data are not available. However, it is known that in the economic life of Sogdiana, Bactria Margiana observed a well-known rise. Build new cities, strengthen old ones, developed crafts and trade, regularly minted coins, expanded the irrigation network.

Speaking of the densely populated fertile oasis irrigated by the waters of Zarafshan, which the Greek authors called Politimetom, one could argue that irrigation is increasingly expanding and in ancient times. Samarkand archaeologist V. Grigoriev, exploring settlement Tuley Barzu located near Samarkand, found that already in the II-I centuries BC, irrigation is widely development.

Marakanda peasants and all the Zarafshan Valley in those days grew wheat, rice, millet, alfalfa, cotton, planted orchards and vineyards. Sources say that in the Fergana and in the neighboring countries "(ie, in Sogdiana and Bactria) people drink wine."They like their wine, as their horses like alfalfa. Rich kept wine in cellars for several decades.

Living in Sogdiana, along with agriculture and engaged in animal husbandry. This is evidenced by archeological finds of bones of domestic animals, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, pigs. Especially widely developed horse-breeding. Coney pure blood of Sogdiana were known from the Mediterranean Sea to the Pacific Ocean.

In ancient times through Central Asia conducted a brisk trade between East and West. Through Sogdian city passed the famous "silk road" crossing the Asian continent. Samarkand was the main crossroads of important caravan routes from India, Byzantium, China, Tibet, Iran, Siberia, and Scythia.

The peoples of Sogdiana, maintaining close economic relations with East and West, North Atlantic rum and South, have enriched our culture and at the same time had a strong influence on the development of neighboring countries. Proved that, for example, the Chinese took from the peoples of Central Asia, alfalfa, grapes, pomegranate, walnut, many garden plants. China has taken from the valleys of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Zarafshan culture of cotton. From the Ferghana Valley are the same Chinese exported horses, they called for the beauty, tireless, playfulness, "heavenly." Living in Sogdiana, in turn, borrowed from the East sericulture, paper production, the art of making gold and silver jewelry, arms deal.

In the last century to a new era in the fight against the foreigners Sogdian were frequent changes in maps of Central Asia, evolved and decayed major public education, such as Greco-Bactrian kingdom and many others. In the I century AD Sogdiana and Bactria became part of the powerful slave state known to history as a Great Power, Kushan. Kushan period (I-IV century AD) for Central Asia was a period of significant growth. At this time enlivened by city life, and enhanced trade ties Sogdian cities, including Samarkand, with China and India. From East Asia imported silk, jade, iron, nickel and articles of lacquer and leather, and from Central Asia took out the glass, precious stones and adornments. From India instead of glass products and other Central Asian goods were brought spices, incense, paper and woolen fabrics.

In the middle of V century the Kushan empire, survived in the III and IV centuries deep decline, fell under the onslaught of the warlike nomadic tribes, known collectively as Ephtalites. In turn, in the IV century Ephtalits were swept away by the Turkic tribes that formed the Turkic Kaganat.

Despite the change of kingdoms and dynasties, Samarkand continued to play an important role in the economic, political and cultural life of Central Asia and the East.

Sogdian were known as skilled farmers and craftsmen, enterprising merchants, talented musicians and dancers. Craft is famous for its cities continued. Samarkand minted its own coins, conducted a lively trade with many countries had their own written language and literature. And not for nothing that the famous orientalist VV Bartold, speaking of the Sogdians, stressed that their cultural activities along the caravan routes of Central Asia, few cultural activities gives the Phoenicians along the Mediterranean trade routes. And indeed, it is difficult to overestimate the role of Sogdian in those days. They actually held in their hands trading in all the eastern section of the Silk Road that stretched from Merv to the River Huang Ho. Throughout the ancient trade route, they founded their colonies, established business and economic contacts with local merchants and citizens, are widely traded their goods.

Overcoming great obstacles created by the kings of Iran, the Sogdian merchants, whether penetrating farther and farther to the west. In the middle of the VI century, they tried twice to strike up a good relationship with the central regions of Iran. The first embassy from Sogdiana headed Maniahom was taken at the court of the Sassanid king very unkindly: Sogdian traders brought silk Persians ostentatiously burned in front of the ambassadors. Sogdians sent a new caravan. But this attempt ended tragically: the king of Iran ordered the poison ambassadors Sogd.

The cruel actions of the Iranian rulers could not shake the entrepreneurial spirit and perseverance of the Sogdian merchants. As evidenced by the Byzantine historian Menander, the messengers used by ancient Sogdiana steppe routes that bypass Iran along the northern shore of the Caspian, and to establish direct contact with Byzantium.

In Constantinople arrived Sogdian embassy. It was headed by the same Maniah. The Byzantine emperor, in turn, in 568, sent to Central Asia of its messenger.

In this way sogdians have forged strong commercial, diplomatic and cultural ties with the Byzantine Empire, lasted for many years. A measure of high culture and svoebytnoy Sogdian is their writing. They are usually written from right to left, lines are often placed vertically. Then wrote in black ink on the skin, sticks, tablets, clay shards, at least on paper. The earliest known science Sogdian texts are so-called "Old Letters," the expedition found A. Stein in 1906-1908 years. in the ruins of a watchtower to the west of Dunhuang. These documents date from the beginning of IV century BC. Studies have shown the French Iranist R. Goto, they are written in the Sogdian language and constitute private correspondence. In two letters, dictated by the scribe sogdiankoy Mevanchey ("Kitty" or "Tiger") in the name of his mother, who lived in Samarkand, reported anxiety these days, which then went through the Sogdian commercial colonies in East Turkestan in connection with the onslaught of the Huns, on trade matters; about the private life of the author's letters. For example, she complains of her sad fate - her guardian Nanidat wants to marry her, but she disagrees: "I would rather my wife a dog or a pig than his wife Nanidata" - wrote Mevancha his mother in Samarkand. But a few years later, everything changed. From another letter we learn that the girl became the wife of Nanidata that she is happy in marriage and tenderly cares for her beloved husband.

"Old Letters" were not delivered to recipients at Samarkand. Nearly 1600 years they have lain in the ruins of the tower until the beginning of XX century were not discovered by archaeologists.

And, finally, began talking Sogdiana. In the spring of 1965 under the loess strata afrasiabskih hills in one of the excavated areas, archaeologists discovered an inscription, kept silent for many centuries. Preliminary analysis of the text afrasiabskoy findings led to the conclusion that the inscription contains a message about the arrival of the embassy of the king of Samarkand Chaganian, an area located in the area then this Termez. The Embassy is headed, according to the inscription, head of the Office of the kind of Bur Zataki. The text consists of 16 lines and has remained almost entirely. Only at the end ruined four words. The inscription is believed to researchers, made a professional scribe and its language is very close to the end of the conversation VII - beginning of VIII century.

The inscription, deciphered VA Lifshits, reads as follows:
"When the ambassador arrived Hun king, he opened his mouth (and said):" I - chaganiansky Head of Chancery, on behalf of the Boer-Zataki (son of Bura), came from the state chaganianskogo Turantasha to Samarkand with an expression of reverence for the king of Samarkand. And here I am at the front (Samarkand), the king, full of reverence. And you do not have absolutely no suspicion of me - I'm well aware of the gods and Samarkand Samarkand writing and I am full of respect (?) To the power of (your) king, and you are in full prosperity. And also hunnsky king ... "(here the text destroyed). Chaganiansky So said Chief of Staff."

In addition to the king of Samarkand, whose name was not mentioned in the inscription mentions also "hunnsky king", and from the text that he was a prominent ruler - a part of his kingdom was to enter Chaganian, came from the embassy. We can assume that by "Hun king" should be understood Ephtalites governor, the speaker sometimes in written sources, under the name King Tokharistan. Very curious about Samarkand religion clause ("the gods") and writing - the ambassador wants to assure the people of Samarkand, he has no intention to infringe on their faith or in writing.

In addition to these sixteen lines of text in Sogdian Afrasiab found another ten titles.

Are afrasiabskaya painting and Sogdian inscriptions reflect the actual historical events? Or is it just a legend? Until this question is impossible to give an exact answer. Researchers believe that the names of the actors in the 16-row Sogdian inscriptions speak of the official event in the history of Sogdiana.

The high art of Samarkand at that time showed artistic merits of murals Afrasiab to occupy its rightful place in the history of world art.

New archaeological findings prove that Samarkand before the Arab conquest was one of the most brilliant centers of the Middle Ages. Not for nothing that the Arabs who've seen before Mesopotamia and Iran, admired the fertility and abundance of Sogdiana, dubbed him the "Garden of the victorious caliph." And the capital of Sogdiana - Samarkand, one of the participants of the tour Kuteyba wrote:
"Truly he is on his green like the sky, and palaces, its like stars in the heavens, and the river of his mirror for open spaces, and the wall of his sun to horizon!"

So caught Sogd and its flourishing center of Samarkand Arab hordes Kuteyba.

 

HIKING ARABS
March on the capital of Sogdiana Arabs have taken in 712, leaving against Samarkand twenty thousandth vanguard of his troops. Conquerors fired the city walls of three hundred and missile weapons, causing massive destruction. Staunchly and courageously defended their city Sogdian, inflicting heavy losses on the attacker. The siege lasted a whole month. But despite the courageous resistance of Samarkand, Arab forces led by Kuteyba stormed into the city through the punched stenobitnymi machines in the walls of the holes and subjected him to merciless plunder.

From numerous ancient temples, which are famous Samarkand-mi, Kuteib had brought untold treasures, gold, silver, precious stones. A temple, representing the best examples of architecture, were burned and destroyed. In this case, killed a huge number of creations of folk artists, painters and sculptors.

To oppression and violence of Arab conquerors masses Maverannahr responded violent liberation struggle. At the beginning of 713 years in Samarkand anti-Muslim rebellion broke out. Sogdians refused to comply with the contract imposed on them by the conquerors, and were up in arms against the Arabs. To help the rebels came steppe Turks, solidarity with Sogdians in the fight against foreign invaders. Brutal, bloody struggle in Sogdiana did not stop for almost the entire period of Arab rule in Central Asia. The most significant was the revolt of 720-721 years, when the Arabs threw against an army of Samarkand punishers. Residents forced to leave his native town and fled in Khujand, were brutally massacred on the road.

But people do not give up. Anti-Arab and anti-feudal movement again soon swept the whole valley Zarafshan and Kashkadarya. The uprising that broke out in the 70 years of the VIII century, led by a man, went down in history under Arab Mukanna nickname that means "veiled". The rebels tried to destroy inequality and to end the Arab domination.

Appeal Mukanna called a warm response from citizens and Samarkand. Desperate foreign oppression city residents armed themselves and headed by a brave and resolute commander, Rafi ibn Lacey hit the hated invaders.

Elevated uprising, in the figurative definition Sadriddin Aini became a kind of "wind, swollen fire out of fire disturbance, blazing in the hearts of the people." Gathering of brave men, Rafi broke into the palace of Samarkand, killed Junaid ibn-Azadi, then ruled the city on behalf of the Arab governor of Khorasan.

With the collapse at the beginning of IX century, the Arab Caliphate rule in the country went to the local inherit the dynasty Takhirid, and IX-X centuries - Samanids. The period of a new upsurge of Samarkand. The city began to grow, expanding to the south and gradually going beyond Afrasiab.

During the XI-XII centuries Samarkand several times of transition from one to the other conquerors.


MONGOLIAN BUSTING

In the spring of 1220 in Maveranakhr broke the black hordes of Genghis Khan. Their cruel conquerors terrified by the enslaved peoples.

"They have no pity on anyone else - suggests a contemporary historian of the invasion of the XIII century by Ibn al-Asr - and beat men, women, babies, ripped the womb of pregnant women and fetuses were sacrificed. Sparks of the pogrom swept in all directions and extended to all evil, as cloud, which drives the wind. "

The country languished under the Mongol yoke.

Desperate masses of people have repeatedly been raised to fight the invaders and local feudal lords. One such major national-liberation movements was the revolt of the craftsmen and peasants under the leadership of Mahmoud Taraba. It began in 1228 in Bukhara. The insurgents were expelled from the city of Mongolian officials and Baskakov and won the battle with a large detachment of invaders. But the Taraba killed in action.

In the same period in Central Asia obost is lost class struggle. Growing discontent of the masses against the foreign invaders, against the intolerable oppression of feudal lords summoned a powerful liberation movement of the urban working people. The rebels called themselves sarbadarami, ie, people condemned to the gallows. For the first time sarbadarov movement manifested itself in the thirties of the XIV century in Khorasan and quickly spread among the peasants and artisans Maverannahr.Sarbadary performed with the expanded program of social equality and equal distribution of consumer goods. Their ideas have attracted attention everywhere. In Khorasan sarbadary even managed to create their own state, existed from 1337 to 1381, almost forty-five years. In sarbadarov was his army, his own coin, its laws and firm orders.

Speaking against the Mongol elite, against the feudal lords who did not unbearable and difficult life of peasants and artisans, sarbadary said:
"All of the oppressors, all-powerful, united, oppressed. With God's help we will destroy oppression. But otherwise we will perish on the gallows. We do not have the strength to endure the oppression and suffering."

Chroniclers of the time reported that the Mongol Khan appealed to the leader of the uprising sarbadarov with a message demanding "bow" and "lower wings in front of the oppressors of the time, throw away the dream of the impossible" and halt the rebellion. In response, the insurgents boldly declared:
"Why would bow before the oppression of the time,
Why put up in front of each lower case?
Sea and mountains, we overpowered and rush forward,
And as the eagle, the flight over land and water
Or reach our goal - will stand firm with your foot on the ground.
Or, as befits the men, add a head for the cause of honor. "
Ideas and appeals sarbadarov lit and working people of Samarkand. Frightened by the threat of capture of his native city hated by the Mongols, under the Samarkand nabatnuyu roll of drums and trumpets gathered in a central square near the main mosque.

Madrasa student Maulana-Zadeh appealed to the ten thousandth crowd citizens with hot words, call:
"Countless hordes of Mongols invaded our country. Their purpose - to robbery. The enemies are approaching the city, - he said. - Our governor, who charged from each resident of back-breaking taxes, and taxes, which spent the stolen money to their every whim, at its discretion, when an the enemy fled for their lives. left us to fend for themselves. Now, what would be the ransom for his life or give you - the citizens of Samarkand, you will not be saved from the enemy. Who now will protect the residents of our city who wish to take responsibility for it before eminent persons and the general public? "We bow our heads before a man and fulfill their responsibilities."

Call Maulana-Zadeh was picked unanimously, and Samarkand rose as one to protect the native walls.

However, to know and the higher clergy were unwilling to accept authority sarbadarov, which they openly called "contemptible rabble." Patriotic Movement of Samarkand sarbadarov was treacherously and with unprecedented brutally suppressed. In defeating his main role was played by emirs Husayn and Timur, pretended to the throne of Samarkand.

 

 

 



TIMUR
In 1370, with the support of the higher clergy and the urban elite, Timur was able to eliminate its primary and a very dangerous opponent Hussein. After seizing power in the city, Timur immediately declared himself the sole ruler Maverannahr and declared Samarkand as its capital.

True, while Timur decided not titulovat Khan himself and undertook to rule the state on behalf of some unknown to anyone, "the descendant of Genghis Khan, who was listed as an official monarch, but in fact now the power over the land owned by Timur. Since that time, and begins a rapid rise of "Iron hromtsa.

Timur, or Timurleng in Russian chronicles Tamerlane, was born April 9, 1336, in the village of Khoja Ulgar, near modern Shakhrisyabz, family lords of the Turko-Mongol tribe of Barlas. Timur deftly used the strife between the feudal lords, sought to win the support of powerful individuals from feudal lords, from the midst of the big traders, and especially the clergy, to support whom he often resorted to far-reaching political purposes. Contemporaries describe Timur as a man who has the courage, cruelty, natural intelligence, organizational and military capabilities.

Waging continuous wars for 35 years, Timur was able to create an empire that stretched from the Volga to the Ganges, from the Tien Shan to the Bosphorus. The richest countries Ny East, including Iran and India, have become prey to brutal conqueror. The greatest flowering of the city were razed to the ground. Was killed and a rich, densely populated center of Khorezm - Urgench. After three campaigns (1389, 1391, 1394-1395 gg.) Timur fell under the blows of the powerful Golden Horde.Capital of Sarai-Berke Timur crushed and burned.

In the years 1397-1398 Timur made a devastating campaign in northern India. In 1399 he invaded the Caucasus and ravaged Georgia in 1401 - Syria. In 1400, Timur started a war in Asia Minor and the Turkish sultanate. At the Battle of Ankara, in which each side were more than 200,000 soldiers, he defeated the Turkish army and captured most of the Sultan Bayazid. Egypt recognized the power of Timur without resistance.

The capital of the state Timur made Samarkand. By order of the formidable ruler here from the conquered lands forcibly resettled thousands of skilled craftsmen and destroyed without indemnity entire neighborhoods, leaving the homeless poor, previously yutivshihsya in the construction area. Cruel, ruthless measures Timur accelerated the transformation of Samarkand, a major city, desiring in every way threw out the pre-eminent value of its capital are among the most famous cities in the medieval world.

In the years 1371-1372, Samarkand was surrounded by a solid wall length of about seven kilometers from the six gates. In the western part of the city (now the Theatre Square) was built a citadel to the residence of Timur, surrounded by a wall height of 8 meters. In the citadel there were two gates - the east and west. The first exit in the direction of the Registan. Inside the citadel was the palace of the Kok-barn once known for his throne and a magnificent stone Koktash receiving room, a place where the ceremony of presentation the formidable ruler of foreign ambassadors, military leaders and the nobility. Next to the Cock-a shed. building housed government offices and weapons workshops.

The official center of Samarkand since Timur made Registan Square. Here, the sounds of the huge copper pipes dzharchi-criers proclaimed citizens of grace and fierce retribution ruler. Here, publicly committed the bloody executions, proclaimed the beginning and end of wars and campaigns. This was the triumphant winner, to pokichitsya to Samarkand looted trophies in far away countries, the production and the severed heads of enemies, stuck on long spikes. Here is on the Registan sbegalis rebellious people to go from here in the quarters of the nobility, to smash the hated oppressors and tyrants.

As conceived by Timur's grandeur and beauty of Samarkand had to outshine all the capitals of the world. Arab historian Ibn Arabshah, who lived in the middle of the XV century, says that Timur has appropriated a number of newly built in the vicinity of Samarkand, the most prominent names of villages and glorious cities in the world - Misr (Cairo), Dimishk (Damascus), Baghdad, sultans, Shiraz. In part, these names remain names mahallas - quarters of Samarkand to the present day.

Extant buildings since Timur - wonderful mausoleums of Shah-i-Zinda, Bibi Khanum mosque, the tomb of Gur-Emir. In the vicinity of the capital were built then buried in the shady gardens of suburban palaces: Bugs-plane, Bugs-Dilkusho, Bugs-Balyand, Bugs-Shamal.

Genzeles Ruy de Clavijo describes the times of Tamerlane of Samarkand:
"The city of Samarkand lies on the plain. It is surrounded by an earthen rampart and moats. The whole town is surrounded by gardens and vineyards. So many of these orchards and vineyards that once drove up to the city, you see a forest of tall trees, and the middle of it the city itself. The city and the gardens are a lot of full-flowing channels ... The city is replete with various goods that are brought into it from other countries: in Russia and Tartary, from China, from India.

... So many people all gathered together he and all the land in this city, both men and women that just say it was 150 000. Between them there were many people of different tribes: the Turks, Arabs, Moors and other people of Armenian Christians and the Greeks ... That the people there were so many that he could not fit in any town or on the streets or in villages, and even out of town under the trees and in the caves it was amazing so much. "

Magnificent creations of craftsmen and builders, forcibly deported to Samarkand from the conquered countries, "master of the world," decorated the city. Survived to this day monuments of the reign of Timur are striking in their beauty and harmony of colors, the perfection of construction equipment.

In the last years of his life, Timur was preparing for a grand march on China but also in its very early, in February 1405, died at the age of 69 years near the town of Otrar. His body was transported to Samarkand and was buried in the mausoleum of Gur-Emir.



Ulugbeck
After the death of Timur again ignite civil wars and feudal strife. Five years into a bitter power struggle between the descendants of the conqueror. It ends with victory for the son of Timur - Shahrukh, who chose as his residence is not Samarkand, and Herat. Maverannahr he gave an inheritance to his eldest son - Ulugbek (1394-1449).

Forty years, from 1409 until his tragic death in 1449, ruled Ulugbek, where Samarkand more equip with modern conveniences and has become one of the world centers of science of the Middle Ages. Here, in Samarkand, the first half of the XV century. Around Ulugbek, a whole scientific school, bringing together prominent astronomers and mathematicians - Ghiyath al-Din Dzhemshida Kashi, Kazi-zade Rumi, Ali Kushchi.

In Samarkand, while living historian Hafiz-i-Abru, who wrote a remarkable work on the history of Central Asia, the famous physician Mavlono Nefis, poets, Siraj al-Din Samarkandi, Sakkaki, Lutfi Badakhshi, etc. These were the leading men of the time, who believed in the power of human reason, by science.

Hardly any of the cities of Central Asia lived through so many tumultuous events, turmoil and hardship, how many were destined to experience the Samarkand and Samarkand. Lush capital of Tamerlane, its wealth and grandeur attracted the greedy eyes of the conquerors, and each of them considered a great honor to take the throne of Samarkand.

At the beginning of the XVI century. Central Asian Timurid possessions were seized by nomadic Uzbeks. Their leader was Mohammed Sheibani Khan (1451-1510 gg.).

At the beginning of the XV century. Samarkand for a short time mastered the Timurid Fergana feudal Zahireddin Babur. In his famous memoirs, Babur was a description of Samarkand, at the time.

"Samarkand - a beautiful city - Babur wrote. - He has one feature that can be found in a few cities: every kind of industry and commerce carried out in special series, and not mixed. Beautiful custom. There is a good bakery and tavern. Best in light of the paper produced in Samarkand ... There is one case in Samarkand - crimson velvet to be exported to all countries ... Samarkand produces beautiful and lots of fruit: grapes, melons, apples, pomegranates are good also, and all other fruits. In the peculiarities of the glory of Samarkand apples and "Sahib" (grape) ".



Alisher Navoi in SAMARKAND
In the late 60-ies of the XV century. Samarkand has lived and studied the great Uzbek poet Alisher Navoi.

More than 3-year stay in the Alisher Navoi Samarkand from the end of 1465 to April 1469 was instrumental in the formation of Navoi as a poet. It was in Samarkand, he became acquainted with the work Sakkaki and other poets who have written on the old Uzbek language. In Samarkand circle of his friends and acquaintances turned out to be the ruler of Samarkand Khoja Ahmed Beg, himself wrote poems under the pen name Wafa, old and young scientists Abulaysi, Mohammed Alim Samarkandi, Hodge Hisrau, Alai Shoshi, Fazil Samarkandi, Jauhar, Khalilullah Samarkand. Navoi spoke enthusiastically about his mentor, scholar and poet Hodja Djalaliddin Fayzulla Abulaysi whom the poet calls "the most learned scholars of Samarkand". Abulaysi was an expert on philosophy, logic, law, mathematics, literature and Arabic language.He was cordial and considerate to his disciples, especially for Alisher. In his madrasa Navoi takes two years, studied the writings of Plato and Aristotle, Ibn Sina and Samarkand philosophers.

It is interesting impression of the Alisher Navoi Samarkand. He likened his paradise, and water Zarafshan called "honey, which gives many benefits to man." "All improvement in Samarkand and Bukhara valley depends on Rudy Kuhaka (Zarafshan). The very same Kuhak (present CHAPANATA) was named poet "treasure of the world, and its every stone - pearl.


Time of Troubles
The first half of XVII century in the history of Samarkand is associated with the activities of the Emir Yalangtushbiya Atalyka-Bohadura of the Uzbek kind Alchin.

 

 

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