Day Tour in Tashkent

Day Tour in Tashkent

Tashkent, Urgench, Khiva

Tashkent, Urgench, Khiva

Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand

Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand



Samarkand Day Tour

Samarkand Day Tour




Tour in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan 3

Tour in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan 3Tashkent, Khiva, Bukhara, Samarkand, Bishkek, Issyk-Kul, Karakol, Tamga
13 day

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 2

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 2Tashkent, Khiva, Bukhara, Samarkand, Fergana, Rishtan, Margilan, Osh, Bishkek, Issyk-Kul
15 days

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 1

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 1Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand, Bishkek, Son-Kul, Issyk-Kul
12 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 1

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 1Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Merv, Ashgabat, Dashoguz, Kunya-Urgench, Khiva, Urgench
11 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 2

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 2Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Gonur (Margush), Merv, Ashgabat, Kunya-Urgench, Khiva
12 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 3

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 3Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Turkmenabad, Koytendag, Kuguitang, Merv, Ashgabat, Gas crater, Kunya-Urgench, Khiva
14 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 4

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 4Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Merv, Ashgabat, Darvaza, Dashoguz, Khiva
12 days

Embassies in Uzbekistan

Embassies in Uzbekistan - Foreign Diplomatic Missions

Embassy of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Address: Kichik Beshagach str., 79
Telephone : Tel: +998-71-1348432, +998-71-1348458

Embassy of Algeria in Uzbekistan
46, Besh Ogaynilar Str
Tel: 998 71 235-52-99

Embassy of Azerbaijan in Uzbekistan
Sharq Tongi Street 25
Tel: 998 71 173-61-67

Embassy of Bangladesh in Uzbekistan
33, Vosit Vahidov Str
Tel: 998 71 150-21-18

Embassy of Bulgaria in Uzbekistan
52, Rakatbashi Str
Tel: 998 71 256-48-88

Embassy of Byelorussia in Uzbekistan
75, Gulyamova Str
Tel: 998 71 120-75-11
Fax: 998 71 120 72 53

Embassy of China in Uzbekistan
79, Gulyamov Str
Tel: 998 71 233-80-88

Embassy of Czechia in Uzbekistan
H. Ergashev Street 9
Tel: 998 71 120-60-71; 998 71 120-60-74

Embassy of Egypt in Uzbekistan
Chilanzar Street 53
Tel: 998 71 120-60-21

Embassy of France in Uzbekistan
Akhunboboev Street 25
Tel: 998 71 133-53-82; 998 71 133-51-57

Embassy of Georgia in Uzbekistan
6, Zioylilar Str
Tel: 998 71 262-62 43

Embassy of Germany in Uzbekistan
Address: Sh. Rashidov str., 15
Telephone: +998-71-1208440

Embassy of Great Britain in Uzbekistan
67, Gulyamova Str
Tel: 998 71 120 15 00, 998 71 120 150 20

Embassy of India in Uzbekistan
15-16, Kora bulak Str
Tel: 998 71 140-09-97

Embassy of Indonesia in Uzbekistan
73, Gulyamov Str
Tel: 998 71 232-02-37

Embassy of Iran in Uzbekistan
Address: Parkent str., 20
Tel: 998 71 150-60-50, 150-60-65
Fax: 998 71 140-07-61, 150-60-66

Embassy of Israel in Uzbekistan
3, Abdulla Kahhar Str
Tel: 998 71 120-58-08, 120-58-09
Fax:998 71 120-59-94

Embassy of Italy in Uzbekistan
40, Usuf Hos Hodjib
Tel: 998 71 2521119
998 71 2521120

Embassy of Japan in Uzbekistan
28, Azimov Str
Tel: 998 71 120-80-60/61/62/63
Fax: 998 71 120-80-75, 120-80-77

Embassy of Jordan in Uzbekistan
Farkhad Street 9
Tel: 998 71 274-24-79
Fax: 998 71 140-11-44

Embassy of Kazakhstan in Uzbekistan
Chekhova Street,23
Tel: 998 71 252-16-54
Fax: 998 71 252-16-50

Embassy of Korea - North in Uzbekistan 
7, Afrosiab Str
Tel: 998 71 252-31-51
998 71 252-31-52

Embassy of Korea - South in Uzbekistan
95a. Usman Nosir Str
Tel: 998 71 250-59-44

Embassy of Kyrgyzstan in Uzbekistan
Samatova Street 30
Tel: 137-47-94

Embassy of Latvia in Uzbekistan
16a, Lachkarbegi Str
Tel: 998 71 237-08-51
Fax: 998 71 120-70-36

Embassy of Malaysia in Uzbekistan
Hlopkoborochnaya Street
10 Tel:998 71 2 67-56-23;998 712 67-57-19

Embassy of Moldova in Uzbekistan
Murtazayev Street 6
Tel: 998 71 135-31-35

Embassy of Pakistan in Uzbekistan
15, Kichik Halka Uli Str
Tel: 998 71 248-21-73
Fax: 998 71 120-49-21

Embassy of Palestine in Uzbekistan
35, K.Karimov
Tel: 998 71 254-94-18

Embassy of Poland in Uzbekistan
66, Firdausiy Str
Tel: 998 71 120-86-50

Embassy of Romania in Uzbekistan
44a, Redjametov Str
Tel: 998 71 120-15-67

Embassy of Russia in Uzbekistan
Nukus Street 83
Tel: 998 71 152-62-80

Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Uzbekistan
3a, Babur Str
Tel: 998 71 281-51-01

Embassy of Slovakia in Uzbekistan
38, Kichik Besh Yogoch Str
Tel: 998 71 120-68-52

Embassy of Switzerland in Uzbekistan
Usman Nosir Street 4
Tel: 998 71 120-67-38; 998 71 120-67-39

Embassy of Tajikstan in Uzbekistan
61, A.Kahhar Str
Tel: 998 71 254-99-66

Embassy of Turkey in Uzbekistan
87, Gulyamov Str
Tel: 998 71 113-03-00

Embassy of Turkmenistan in Uzbekistan
Afrosiab Street
Tel: 998 71 120-52-78

Embassy of Ukraine in Uzbekistan
68, Gulyamov Str
Tel: 998 71 233-99-71

Embassy of United States Of America in Uzbekistan
3, Moykurgan Str
Tel: 998 71 120-54-50
Fax: 998 71 120-63-35

Embassy of The Holy See (Vatican) in Uzbekistan
Address: Musakhanov str., 80/1
Telephone: 998 71 233-70-25
Fax: 998 71 233-70-25

Embassy of Yugoslavia in Uzbekistan
Dostoevskiy Street 20
Tel: 998 71 268-88-82;98 71 126-76-35

Uzbekistan Visa Support / Letter of Invitation (LOI)

Uzbekistan Visa Support / Letter of Invitation (LOI)

Oxus Travel is a licensed travel agency in Uzbekistan and can provide you with Uzbekistan Visa Support or Letter of Invitation (LOI). Time required to provide LOI is 8-10 days.
Uzbekistan Visa Support Conditions
Oxus Travel can provide you with the visa support for free with the purchase of a tour package. If you make hotel bookings for the whole duration of your stay in Uzbekistan: visa support up to 2 weeks stay in Uzbekistan costs US$ 25 per person, up to 1 month US$ 50. Please note that additional consular fees are paid at the embassy with your visa application, which may range from $ 40 up-to $150, depending on the length of your stay and the country of your citizenship.
To get Uzbekistan visa support,  you need to do the following:
1.       Fill out Uzbekistan Visa Support / Letter of Invitation (LOI) Form;
2.       Book travel services for the duration of the visa support (hotel reservation or tour).
3.       Send us a good quality photocopy of your passport by fax or preferably a scanned copy by e-mail.
4.        Send us copy of a letter from the employer with the company seal confirming your employment and position (If you are retired or housewife no need for letter);
5.       Copy of the flight tickets or official flight reservation form, if visa is obtained upon arrival at the Tashkent International Airport. See conditions.
Based on the above information, we will prepare an Uzbekistan visa support application and submit it to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Uzbekistan in Tashkent. The approval process takes about 8-10 days. Approved visa support application is telexed directly by the Ministry to the Embassy or Consulate of the Republic of Uzbekistan. We will send you by e-mail the reference number (telex number) of the approved Letter of Invitation, which you would need to provide together with your visa application.
Note: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs reserves the right to deny any application for visa support without providing further explanations or may request additional information

Uzbekistan Visa

Uzbekistan Visa Requirements

All foreign nationals except citizens of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine, are required to have business or tourist visas to enter the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Before application for the tourist visa, foreign nationals need to obtain Uzbekistan visa support, in the form of a Letter of Invitation (LOI), from a licensed travel agency in Uzbekistan. Citizens of Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Malaysia, Spain, Switzerland and UK do not need LOI, but they can be requested to obtain LOI, if they obtain Uzbekistan Visa outside of their country of citizenship. All travelers are suggested to contact in advance Uzbekistan Embassy or Consulate, where they are planning to obtain their tourist visa, for latest requirements.

Where to apply for Uzbekistan Visa?

You can apply for a visa where Uzbekistan Embassy or Consulate exist.

Uzbekistan Visa at Tashkent International Airport

It is possible to obtain a visa at the international arrivals lounge of Tashkent International Airport, if both of the following conditions are met:

  • There is no Uzbekistan Embassy or Consulate in the country, where you are originating your flight to Uzbekistan,
  • Connecting flight to Uzbekistan, in the country where Uzbekistan Embassy or Consulate exists, does not provide enough time to obtain a visa.

Uzbekistan Visa Application requirements:


Uzbekistan Visa support, also referred to as Letter of Invitation (LOI)


Valid passport (be sure that your passport is valid at least six month from the planned arrival date);


Completed application form;


1 passport-size photo;


Fee, payable on collection of visa;


Stamped, self-addressed envelope, if applying by post;


Evidence of purpose of a visit;


Confirmation of hotel reservation and details of stay;

Uzbekistan Visa application form:

You can download the official visa application forms for applying in the United States of America(requires Adobe Acrobat Reader), Germany (click on Cancel, when user name and password is requested), and Israel. If you don't have any adobe acrobat reader, you can install this free software byclicking here.)

Visa Requirements in other Central Asian Countries

Uzbekistan Embassies Abroad

Uzbekistan Embassy in Foreign Countries

Uzbekistan Embassy in Afghanistan
Address: EP Kabul, Vazir Akbar Khan, 13th Street, 3rd row, House 14
Telephone : (93) 20-2300124

Uzbekistan Embassy in Austria
Address: Potzleinsdorferstrasse 49
Telephone : (43-1) 315-39-94

Uzbekistan Embassy in Azerbaijan
Address: EP 370021, Baku, Batamdart, 1st highway, 9 th lane, house 437
Telephone : (99-412) 97-25-49

Uzbekistan Embassy in Belgium
Address: EP Av. F.Roosevelt, 99, 1050, Brussels
Telephone : (322) 672-88-44

Uzbekistan Embassy in China
Address: EP Beijing, 100600, Sanlitun, Beixiao gie 11
Telephone : (86-10) 6532-6305

Uzbekistan Embassy in Egypt
Address: EP 18, Sad El-Aali ST., Dokki-Cairo, Egypt
Telephone : (20-2) 336-17-23

Uzbekistan Embassy in France
Address: EP 22, rue d'Aguesseau, 75008, Paris
Telephone : (331) 5330-0353

Uzbekistan Embassy in Germany
Address: Die Botschaft der Republik Usbekistan Perleberger Str. 62 10559 Berlin
Telephone : (49-30) 394-09-80 394-09-821

Consulates of the Republic of Uzbekistan in Germany
15,Thanstrasse.Frankfurt am Main 60318

Uzbekistan Embassy in Great Britain
Address: EP 41 Holland Park, London, W11 2RP
Telephone : (44-20-7) 229-76-79

Uzbekistan Embassy in India
Address: EP Plot №40, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi - 110021
Telephone : (91-11) 2410-56-40

Uzbekistan Embassy in Indonesia
JI. Daksa III No.14, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta Selatan, Jakarta, Indonesia. 
Telephone:(62-21) 720-09-72, 720-09-50 Fax:(62-21) 720-09-65
Uzbekistan Embassy in Iran
Address: EP Tehran, Pasdaran Avenue, Nastaran St., 6
Telephone : (9821) 229-97-80

Uzbekistan Embassy in Israel
Address: EP Tel-Aviv, Ramat Tsahala, Ha-Nevia Street, building 35 69350
Telephone : (972) 3-644-77-46

Uzbekistan Embassy in Italy
Address: Via Tolmino, 12, 00198 Roma, Italia
Telephone : (39-06) 854-24-56

Uzbekistan Embassy in Japan
Address: EP Tokyo 153-0064, Meguro-ku, Shimomeguro 5-11-8
Telephone : (813) 376-05625

Uzbekistan Embassy in Kazakhstan
Address: EP 480100, Almaty, Beribaev St., 36
Telephone : (3272) 91-02-35

Uzbekistan Embassy in Kyrgyzstan
Address: EP 720040, Bishkek, Tynystanov St., 213
Telephone : (996-312) 66-20-65

Uzbekistan Embassy in Latvia
Address: EP Elizabetes St., 11, room 11, Riga
Telephone : (371) 732-24-24

Uzbekistan Embassy in Malaysia
Address : 2nd Floor, Wisma Chinese Chamber, 258, Jalan Ampang, 50450 Kuala Lumpur
Tel: (+603) 4253-3406, 4253-2406
Fax : (603) 4253 -5406

Uzbekistan Embassy in Pakistan
Address: EP House №2, Street №2, Sektor F-8/3, Kohistan Road, Islamabad
Telephone: (9251) 226-47-46

Uzbekistan Embassy in Poland
Address: Kraski str 21, 02-804 Warsaw, 
Tel: (+482) 894-62-30, Fax: (+4822) 894 62 31 

Uzbekistan Embassy in the Republic of Korea
Address: EP 1376-1 Seocho-2dong, Seocho-Ku, Seoul, Korea, Diplomatic Center, Room 701
Telephone : (822) 574-65-54

Uzbekistan Embassy in the Russian Federation
Address: Pogorelskiy Str, 12, 119017, Moscow 
Tel: ( +499) 230-00-76, 230-00-78, Fax: (+499) 238-89-18 

Uzbekistan Embassy in Saudi Arabia
Address: EP P.O. Box 94008 Riyadh 11693
Telephone : (966-1) 263-52-23

Uzbekistan Embassy in Singapore
Address: 20 Kramat Lane, #04-01/02 United House, 228773, Singapore
Tel.: (+65) 67343942, (+65) 67343943, Fax: (+65) 67345849

Uzbekistan Embassy in Madrid, Spain
Paseo de la Castellana 45, 4Dcha
28046 Madrid
Tel: (+91) 310 16 39, Fax: (+91) 310 31 23

Uzbekistan Embassy in Tajikistan
Address: EP K. Marx St., 15, 734003, Dushanbe
Telephone : (992372) 21-21-84

Uzbekistan Embassy in Turkey
Address: EP Sancak mahallesi, 211. Sokak No3, 06550 Yildiz-Cankaya, Ankara
Telephone : (90-312) 441-38-71

Uzbekistan Embassy in Turkmenistan
Address: Georgly St., 50-F, Ashghabad, 744006
Telephone : (99-312) 34-70-78

Uzbekistan Embassy in Ukraine
Address: EP Vladimirskaya St. 16, Kiev, 01901
Telephone : (38-044) 228-12-46

Uzbekistan Embassy in вAbu-Dhabi, UAE
P.O Box: 111446, Plot # 10/B'2
Zone East 38/1, Moroor street, Abu Dhabi 
Tel: (+9712) 44 88215, 44 88217, Fax: (+9712) 44 88216

Uzbekistan Embassy in the USA
Address: EP 1746 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, DC, 20036 USA
Telephone : (1-202) 887-53-00, 530-72-83, 530-72-87
 Consulates of the Republic of Uzbekistan in Greece
Address Athens, Vasilisis Sofiyas St. 82
Telephone : (302-10) 7777939, 7777975   Fax 6857427
 Consulates of the Republic of Uzbekistan in Pakistan
Address Karachi, Khayaban - e-Badar , 44 B
Telephone :  (9221) 5845425, 5848090  Fax (9221) 5848077 5844969
Consulates of the Republic of Uzbekistan in Saudi Arabia
Address Jidda"Al - Halidia", As - Sirot st. 52, PB 50036, Jidda, 21523
Telephone :  (9662) 6608732   fax: 6634313
Address 77, Thonglor Soi 8, Sukhumviss, Bangkok, 10110
Telephone : (66-2) 7149838, 7149839, 7128883,   Fax: 3913323
Address Mebusan Caddesi, Mebusan Yokusi 61- 63, Karakoi, Istanbul
Telephone : (90212)-3232037, 2290075  fax:3232040
Address Dubai, Jumira Beach Road, Behind Number one, Supermarket villa 2, P.O. box 53432
Telephone : (9714) 394-74-00, 394-52-34
Address 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 327a 10017, New York
Telephone : (1212)-2301341, 7547403, Fax:4867998

General Information

Flag and Emblem of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Герб и флаг УзбекистанаUzbekistan - an independent state in Central Asia. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan has chosen democratic politics and began to implement reforms to develop market economy and enter the international economic community as a full member. 

General Information 
Area: 447.4 square meters. km 
Population: 24,000,000 
Population density: 50.1 per sq. km 
Capital: Tashkent 
Language: Uzbek - a state language, Russian - the language of international communication 
Religion: Islam 
Time: by Grivinchu + 5 hours in winter, + 4 hours in summer 
Electricity: 220 V AC, 50 A, standard pin plug socket 

The Republic of Uzbekistan is located in the central part of Central Asia between two rivers - the Amu Darya and Syr Darya. In the north-west of the republic is the Turan lowlands and mountains of Tien Shan in the south-east of the territory - the mountain ranges of Pamir-Alai. Kyzylkum desert in the north. Uzbekistan borders with the following countries: Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan. 

The climate of Uzbekistan is sharply continental. The average monthly temperature in winter - from +10 to +3 degrees C. Summers are hot and dry. In summer, temperatures range from +35 to +45 degrees C. Autumn is warm enough. And this is the season when delicious fruits and vegetables are in abundance in the markets. At this time temperature is 13 degrees C. 

The Uzbek kitchen there is more than a thousand national dishes. There are about 500 ways to cook the Uzbek pilaf, and in every area it is cooked in its own way.Caloric content and ecological cleanness of local food is unique. Uzbek cuisine is not possible to describe in words, it should try. Great-tasting fruits and vegetables grown under the warm sun, the east and is a component of the Uzbek cuisine. 

All payments are made in sums - the national currency of the Republic of Uzbekistan.Currency exchange offices are available in every city of Uzbekistan. 

To travel to Uzbekistan, we recommend that you wear a very light and loose clothing in cool evenings can be put on a jacket or cardigan. During the excursions and sightseeing on foot in the dry and dusty areas (sand, cobble, etc.), we will essentially comfortable, solid shoes with sturdy soles. There is a need to remove shoes at the entrance to some religious places and structures. There are no special dress code for visiting Islamic religious sites, except for the need to cover most parts of your body, including arms and legs. 

Tourists better than to dress comfortably and not by fashion. Valuable jewelry and any clothing requiring special attention, it is desirable to leave the house. 
Because of the high risk of sunburn, your clothing must have maximum protection. For example, a wide-brimmed hat and sunglasses. 

In some areas of Uzbekistan, a typical tourist might seem extremely rich compared to locals. Frank display of jewelry, handbags, wallets and cameras will give you from the crowd. Be discreet. 

Bag with long, strong belt or a small backpack - the most practical way to the ferry cameras and personal belongings during your stay in Uzbekistan. Your luggage must be protected by a lock. Make sure that luggage is labeled. Your name must be indicated on the label as Label your luggage inside. This will allow airport officials to identify your luggage in case of loss. Never leave your luggage unattended at the airport or train station. 
Free baggage allowance of flights - 20 kg per person, plus one additional part of hand luggage on domestic flights within Central Asia, except Turkmenistan, where the maximum baggage weight - 10 kg. As you travel to some areas where travel conditions are basic, urge you to limit the luggage one suitcase or backpack, and a sleeping bag. An important part of your luggage will also be a folder or wallet to store your necessary documents and money. 

Your journey will take place in rayon, which are not, largely, on dangerous infectious diseases, so there are no official vaccination requirements for foreign tourists.However, we strongly recommend that you consult your physician for the prevention and recommendations for the necessary vaccinations. 
Should be prepared for minor gastric complaints, because in some areas the water contains large amounts of mineral and metal salts. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for purchase of medicines and prevent these diseases. 
One of the major threats to health is dehydration. Always keep your body consumption of soft drinks. 
Sunburn can also be a potential problem. It is advisable to carry suntan lotion and broad-brimmed hat. If you prefer, you can also take vitamins, to gargle to prevent basic infections, flu tablets, aspirins, plasters, antiseptic and antibacterial cream.Please let us know if you have allergies or need special food, which require attention during the trip, unless your doctor has prescribed you any medication, make sure you have sufficient medical supplies for the duration of leave. 

In the hotels of this region is not always required the presence of individual safes in the rooms. Always need to keep with you important documents: passport, currency, traveler's checks, tickets, credit cards, etc. Take precautions to avoid loss of property. Upon arrival at the hotel you must provide your passport to make registration. Do not forget to pick it up before leaving. 

For tourists who want to capture the interest of space, there are no prohibitions.Photography is prohibited at the airport and railway stations, in some religious monuments, military installations and the Tashkent subway. Always accompanies the guide will explain all your questions. Also note that the fee for photography in most sightseeing places (not included in the price of the tour). Photographic film and batteries available for sale, but recommend that you purchase all the necessary items before your arrival, especially if you have the latest modification or a sophisticated type of camera / video camera, which requires a certain kind of film or batteries. 

Mineral water contains more local production of high levels of minerals than the water of a foreign proceeding, and the taste may seem to you quite salty (these mineral waters are considered medicinal). On sale are available imported spirits and wines, but in some places, the origin of some alcoholic drinks and wines is questionable and the price may be overstated. 

Tourists will be pleasantly surprised izdeliyamii interesting jewelry, clothing and handicrafts in Central Asia. Books, postcards and maps as are common gifts. There are restrictions on the export of carpets. Detailed information on the subject ask before you buy your tour guide. 

Additional payments 
You are responsible for paying these additional hotel bills, like phone calls, room service, use of the minibar and laundry. Before leaving the hotel, provided a tour, please make sure you pay all additional charges

Uzbekistan Regions

Республика Узбекистан

Andijan region
Located in the eastern part of the Ferghana Valley. It covers an area of ​​4,200 square meters. km. The climate is continental with sharp differences between winter and summer temperatures. The population is 1,899,000 people, the average density is 499 people per 1 square. kilometer.
Area is divided into 14 administrative districts.
The regional center - the city of Andijan, numbering 303,000 people. Other major centers of Asaka, Khanabad Hodzhaabad, Shakhrikhan and Karasu.
Minerals region are represented by multiple deposits of oil, ozokerite and limestone.
Currently registered in the region 85 joint ventures. Foreign trade turnover totaled 1 164 400 000 U.S. dollars in 1997.

Bukhara region
Located in the southwest of Uzbekistan. Most of its territory is desert Kyzyl-Kum desert. The total area of ​​the region is 39,400 square meters. km. The climate is continental and dry.
The population of the Bukhara region is 1,384,700 people, about 68% live in rural areas, the remaining 32% live in urban areas. Area is divided into 11 administrative districts.
Administrative center - the city of Bukhara with a population of 263,400. Other cities of Alat, Karakol, Galas, Gazley, Gijduvan, Kagan, Romitan, Shavirkan and Vabkent.

Lies in the central part of Uzbekistan. The total area of ​​the region is 20,500 square meters. km. The climate is continental with dry hot summers and mild winters. The population is 910,500 people, while the average population density is 108 persons per square kilometer. Area is divided into 11 administrative districts. City Dihzak - the regional administrative center. The town's population 127,200 inhabitants. Other major cities Dustlik Gagarin, Gallaaral, Pakhtakor and Mardjanbulak.
In the region established 34 joint venture. The total value of production totaled 159.9 million soums in 1997.
The region's economy based on agricultural production. Most important to grow - cotton and grain. Tens of thousands of hectares of virgin land has been investigated for use in agriculture. Over the past few years in an inadequate irrigation infrastructure.

Ferghana region
Located in the southern part of the Ferghana Valley and covers an area of ​​6,800 square meters. km. The climate is continental with mild winters and very hot summers.
The population is about 2,597,000 people, 70.7% of whom reside in rural areas. Area is divided into 15 administrative districts.
The regional center - the city of Fergana, with a population 214,000 people. Other cities Beshkaryk, Hamza, Kokand, Couva, Kuvasay, Margilan and Rishton.

Located in the basin on the western slopes Kashkadarya Pamir-Alai mountains.
The total area of ​​the region is 28,400 square meters. km. The climate is continental, dry and partly subtropical. The population of the area has 2,029,000 people, 73% of whom live in rural areas.
Kashkadarya divided into 14 administrative districts. The regional center - the city of Karshi, with a population of 177,000 people. Other major cities - Shakhrisabz Kitab, concern, Mubarak, Yakkabad, Husar and Kamashi. In the region there are 14 joint ventures with foreign investment.

Khorezm region
Located in the northwestern part of Uzbekistan in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya River. The total area is 6,300 square meters. km. The climate is continental with moderately cold winters and dry hot summers.
The population is 1,200,000, of whom about 80% live in remote areas. Area is divided into 10 administrative districts. The regional center - the city of Urgench, with a population of 135,000 people. Other major cities of the region - Khiva, Shoyot and Juma.

Located in the northeastern part of the Ferghana Valley on the right bank of the Syr Darya River and covers an area of ​​7,900 square meters. km. The climate is continental with hot dry summers and mild wet winters.
The population is 1,862,000, of whom 62.3% live in rural areas and 37,7% in urban areas.
Area is divided into 11 administrative districts. The regional center - the city of Namangan with a population of 341,000. Other major cities - Chartak, Kasansay, Hakolabad, Dad, Uchkurgan, Tarakurgan and Chust.

Located in the southwestern part of Uzbekistan in the heart of the Kizil-Kum desert.Covers an area of ​​110,800 square meters. km. The climate is continental and dry.The population is approximately 767,500, of which approximately 59.4% lives in rural areas and 40,6% - in cities.
Area is divided into 8 administrative districts. Regional center - gorord Navoi with a population of 128,000 people. Other cities - Kiziltepa, Nurata, Uchkuduk, Zarafshan and Yangirobad.

Samarkand region
Located in the heart of Uzbekistan in the basin Zarafshan. The total area is 16,400 square meters. km. The climate is continental and dry.
The population is 2,322,000, of which three quarters live in rural areas. Area is divided into 16 administrative districts with an average population density of 149 persons per square kilometer.
The regional center - the city of Samarkand with a population of 368,000 people.Other major cities - Bulungur, Juma, Ishtyhan, Kattakurgan, Urgut and Aktas

Located in southern Uzbekistan, bordering Afghanistan. The total area of ​​800 sq km is 20. km. The climate is continental with mild winters and hot summers.

The population is approximately 1,676,000 people, of whom the majority (79,8%) live in rural areas.
Area is divided into 14 administrative districts. The regional center - Termez with a population of 95,000 people. Other cities in the region - Baysin, Denau, Jarkurgan, Kumkurgan Shargunov, Sherabad, Shurchi and Saryasiya.

Located in the heart of Uzbekistan on the left bank of the Syr Darya. Hungry Steppe occupies a significant portion of its area. The total area is 5,100 square meters. km.The climate is continental and dry.
The population is 648,100 people. Syr-Darya region is divided into 9 administrative districts. The regional center - the city of Golestan, with a population 54,000 people.Other cities - Bakht, Khavast, Mirzakent, Pahtaabad, Sardoba, Syr, Shirin and Yangiyer.

Tashkent region
Located in the northeastern part of Uzbekistan between western slopes of the mountain ranges of Tien Shan and the Syr Darya river. Its total area is 15,300 square meters. km. The climate is continental with mild, wet winters and cool dry summers.
The population is 4,450,000 people, and the average density of 147 persons per square kilometer. Area is divided into 15 administrative districts. The regional center - the city of Tashkent with a population of over 2 million people. In 16 cities, most large cities - Angren Almalik, Ahangaran. Bekabad, Chirchik Gazalkent, Keles, Parkent, Toy-Tepa, Yangiabad and Yangiiul where the main production activity. In the area with 13 small towns and villages.
Subsoil rich in copper, brown coal, molybdenum, zinc, gold, silver, rare earth metals, etc.

Located in the southwestern part of Uzbekistan. It extends to the north-western part of the Kizil-Kum desert and the delta of the Amu Darya River. The total area of ​​the republic is 165 6000 square meters. km. The climate is continental with very hot summers and cold snow-free winter. The population of Karakalpakstan is 1.4 million people, mostly Uzbeks (32,8%) and Karakalpaks (32,1%). About 48% of the population lives in rural areas and 52% - in cities. The Republic is divided into 15 administrative districts, 12 towns and 16 villages. The administrative center of the republic - the city of Nukus, with a population of 236,700 people. Other major cities - Biruni, Buston, Khodjeyli, Kungrad, Muynak, Takhiatash, Turtkul and Chimbai.

History of uzbekistan


Uzbekistan - the ancient cradle of human culture.

Since the days of antiquity here, the vast expanses of fertile valleys, great rivers, the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, in mountain ravines, on the steppe grasslands interwoven historical fate of the many variety of ethnic composition, household, religion, level of cultural development of peoples. They faced, engaging with each other in a brutal fight, mixed, formed tribal alliances, solder a powerful conglomerate of nomadic and sedentary empires, created the treasures of science, art, architecture, literature, came into decline, sinking into obscurity again rise from the ruins and fires to life.

They, these ancient inhabitants of the country and their distant descendants - Uzbeks, Tajiks, Turkmens, ka-Zahi, Karakalpaks, Kirghiz had a marked influence on world history.

Nations and tribes that inhabited Central Asia in the past, first mentioned in the Avesta - the sacred book of the ancient religion of Iran - Zoroastrians, written with gold ink on parchment, carefully dressed in leather. We regret to note that most of the lyrics of "Avesta" was not kept.

Consists of "Avesta" of a set of religious teachings, prayers and hymns of Zoroastrianism - religion, the basic dogma of which was the doctrine of the eternal struggle between good and evil, light and darkness. At the same time, the Zoroastrian holy book contains valuable information about the period of disintegration of the primitive socio-economic structure and the emergence in Central Asia, the first state formations. "Avesta" was created over many centuries. But what is especially interesting for us, the early part of it were written in the second quarter of the first millennium AD. er. between the rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya, ie in the region, one of the largest of which was always Samarkand. Further replenishment of "Avesta" occurred in Media, Antropotene (now Azerbaijan), and especially in Fars (Iran).

But anyway, obscure writers of several chapters of the sacred book live somewhere or in the Samarkand, or near it. This gives many specific details and facts given in the Avesta, of exceptional interest. And indeed, we find it a colorful picture of Central Asia, period VIII-VII centuries BC. AD. like the country "... where the high mountains abound in pastures and water, giving ample fodder for cattle, where the deep lakes with large water surface and navigable rivers with extensive beds of ...". "Avesta" glorifies the work of farmers, already created at that time in Central Asia, the high culture of irrigated agriculture. Pages Avesta contain many details about the organization of society, income inequality within the community, the cults, the development of productive forces, crafts and cities. Are those social groups of local people as priests, warriors, farmers and artisans.

"Who sows corn, sows that justice," - reads the verse "Avesta".

Ancient state formations in Central Asia were Bactria, Khorezm and Sogdiana.Sogdiana occupied valley Zarafshan and swimming pool nearby Kashkadarya. The chief city of Sogdiana and was Marakanda - Samarkand. Etymology of the name "Samarkand" is not scientifically established. Oriental authors felt that the first part of the word "Samar" - is the name of the founder or the conqueror of the city. History, however, does not know that name. The second part of the name "Candidate" - a variation of the word "kent", ie village, town (cf. Tashkent, Penjikent Parkent, Pskent, etc.). Scientists XI century AD, Biruni, and Mahmud Kashgar tried to interpret the name of the city of Samarkand as a distortion of the word "semizkent," that is rich village.

The history of the oldest public education tions in Central Asia, including Sogdiana, to the VI century AD, little is reflected in historical works and documents. Information available to historians, are semi-legendary character. Reliably only that the VI to IV century BC. er. Central Asian nations were under the rule of Persian kings of the Achaemenid dynasty. "Father of History" Herodotus says that the ruler of Persia "king of kings," Cyrus turned his hordes to the east of the Caspian Sea and conquered Bactria and Sogdiana.

On the conquest of Sogdiana, in particular, indirect evidence sources attributing Cyrus Kiropolya foundation of the city in the valley of the Syr Darya, near the northern borders of Sogdiana.

In the Central Asian land, Cyrus made a few trips. The last of them for the mighty conqueror ended tragically. According to the story of Herodotus, the invasion was directed against the Achaemenid warlike nomads - Massagetae, chief of which was a woman named Tomaris. Tribesmen have proclaimed her his queen after the death of her husband.

Cyrus sent ambassadors to the queen with honeyed words, proposing to marry him.Tomaris, thinking that the only desire Cyrus - is to conquer and subjugate Massagetae not adopted the Persian ambassadors. When he saw that his trick had failed, Cyrus, devastating all-around, went to the Araks (p obviously. Amu Darya).Tomaris called Cyrus to stop the bloodshed. Nevertheless, the Persian king treacherously attacked the camp Massagetae. Enraged such perfidy Tomaris gathered his cavalry and marched on the enemy, giving the oath drink their fill with blood insatiable Achaemenids.

Herodotus depicts in detail a battle that lasted many hours. Most of the Persian hordes were destroyed. In combat, killed himself a mighty king of the Persians, Cyrus.His head Tomaris ordered to dip into a leather bottle full of still steaming with blood, in order to "drink" its insatiable conqueror.

Fierce fighting Central Asian peoples against foreign invaders did not stop throughout the centuries of Achaemenid rule. In defending their freedom and independence, the local population showed striking examples of courage. The ancient writer polyenes with great respect tells of the heroism of Saka shepherd Chirac.

When the Persian King Darius I (521-486 years. BC. Er.) Invaded, led a huge army of the steppe nomadic Sakas, brave Chirac himself wounded, disfigured his face and, as such got drenched in blood, to the Persian camp. He said Darius, what happened to him so badly did his countrymen, and that he is eager for revenge. Chirac has offered to hold the Persians on trails, known to him alone to capture the Saks by surprise. Jerking burning hatred for the enemy, the courageous shepherd, after a week started the path of enemies in the waterless desert, for which he paid with his life. Tortured horrible torture, Chirac, in dying, flung in the face of the invaders: "And yet the victory will remain with me. Dooming the Persians to his death from thirst and hunger, I otvozhu misfortune of their tribesmen.

The bitter, self-sacrificing struggle of the peoples of Central Asia, however, has not led to the expulsion of the Persian satraps. In the famous multilingual inscriptions in southern Iran on a rock Behistun Persian ruler, king of kings, lord of the world, Darius, listing the nations subject to him, calls the inhabitants of ancient Sogdiana, Bactria, Khorezm. This inscription framed by the magnificent sculptured figures, among them a picture of himself "king of kings", a triumph over his enemies, is dated 519 BC. er.Joining the Achaemenid state conquered by force of arms Sogdiana bore the brunt of brutal oppression of the conquerors. The population was forced to pay a "king of kings" huge tax.

However, even in this dark period in its history the peoples of Central Asia were able to create amazing material and cultural values. In the valley of Zarafshan continued to evolve and improve agriculture based on irrigation. High perfection reached the horticulture and viticulture. Becoming increasingly important handicraft production, particularly ceramics, as well as the art of building. In the nearby mountain ranges Karatau Nurata, Gobdun-tau, tau Bukan-wide was mined gold, copper, iron, precious stones, including turquoise. In Sogdiana flourished settlements of urban type, of which Samarkand was undoubtedly the largest and busiest commercial and cultural center.

Anyway, in the era of Achaemenid Samarkand already existed as a fully formed and lived full-fledged economic and cultural life of the city, who was already the capital of Sogdiana.


Alexander the Great and Spitaman
In the spring of 329 BC. er. armed from head to foot Greek-Macedonian army led by Alexander made within fifteen days the difficult transition from northern India through the eternal snow-covered Hindu Kush and invaded the territory of Central Asia.

Having crossed over the Amu Darya, the Greeks moved to Marakanda and after hard fighting captured the city. Leaving a garrison here, Alexander of Macedon marched to the east - to the Ferghana Valley. But the way the Greek conquerors was not easy.Freedom-Sogdians provided stiff resistance. In defending its independence, the people rose as one. Fierce fighting continued in Sogdiana three years. Center of resistance was Marakanda.

Inspirer of the uprising was a famous hero of the peoples of Central Asia Spitamen.

In the spring of 327 Alexander besieged fortress "Sogd rock", which was, apparently due apparently, somewhere on the southern slopes of the Hissar Mountains. The rebels had Alexander fierce resistance. "The Rock" was unassailable, and its advocates have decided to fight till the end. On the proposal of the Macedonians to surrender, they proudly answered:

"Let Alexander had himself will produce winged warriors who can take off the cliff. Usually the same people about it and think of nothing."

Calling Highlanders hurt the feelings of the commander. He made a proclamation that those soldiers who will be able to climb the cliff, will receive a high reward. The siege began. Group of soldiers with great difficulty, managed to climb the steep cliff and go to the rear of the defenders. The fortress was forced to surrender.

In the prisoner was captured by many women and children. Among the captives was his daughter and Aksiarta, associate Spitaman, amazingly beautiful girl named Roxanne.

Alexander saw her and fell in love. He did not want to hurt her as a prisoner, and considered worthy of the name of his wife. " With this step, Alexander drew to his side to know the local and strengthened in this way its dominance over Sogdiana.

The heroic uprising Sogdian was brutally suppressed. Treacherously killed and the leader of the rebels, brave fighter against the foreign yoke, a great sogdiets Spitamen.

Historian Quintus Curtius describes the death of Spitaman:

"Spitamen passionately loved his wife and carried with him throughout her viciously relocating flight and a new exile. Weary of misfortunes, she tried to persuade him to female flattery, that he left the flight and tried to surrender to the winner of the Alexander ... But he said that he prefers the death of prisoner ... The feast, seeing her husband drunk and drowned in sleep, his wife took out hidden under a dress sword, cut off his head and splattered with blood, gave her servant, partner in crime. It is accompanied by not removing the bloody clothes, she appeared in the Macedonian camp ... and referred to Alexander's head Spitaman. Another ancient author Arrian relates the death of Spitaman with the actions of the nomads, who first plundered the wagon train leader of rebel troops, and then, having received news of the successful promotion of Greek troops in the desert, killing Spitaman and sent his head to Alexander.

The noble figure bravely fought for the happiness of the people of the great commander Sogdians Spitaman whose life ended so tragically, went down in history, covered with glory.

Early death of Alexander of Macedon (323 BC. Er.) Caused bloody infighting among the Greek commanders. The struggle for power, which were drawn and the Central Asian nations, led to the disintegration of the empire created by Alexander and the formation of a series of individual states. Around 306 BC. er. Territory of Bactria, Sogdiana and Margiana became part of the Seleucid state, so named after its founder Seleucus I (312-280 years. BC. er.).

Ancient Sogdiana
Co-ruler of Seleucus in the East by his son Antiochus, half sogdiets (his mother was the daughter of Apana Spitaman). Marakanda ancient, ruined during the wars and rebellions, beginning with the Seleucids to recover. In the historical sources about the state of the era of direct data are not available. However, it is known that in the economic life of Sogdiana, Bactria Margiana observed a well-known rise. Build new cities, strengthen old ones, developed crafts and trade, regularly minted coins, expanded the irrigation network.

Speaking of the densely populated fertile oasis irrigated by the waters of Zarafshan, which the Greek authors called Politimetom, one could argue that irrigation is increasingly expanding and in ancient times. Samarkand archaeologist V. Grigoriev, exploring settlement Tuley Barzu located near Samarkand, found that already in the II-I centuries BC, irrigation is widely development.

Marakanda peasants and all the Zarafshan Valley in those days grew wheat, rice, millet, alfalfa, cotton, planted orchards and vineyards. Sources say that in the Fergana and in the neighboring countries "(ie, in Sogdiana and Bactria) people drink wine."They like their wine, as their horses like alfalfa. Rich kept wine in cellars for several decades.

Living in Sogdiana, along with agriculture and engaged in animal husbandry. This is evidenced by archeological finds of bones of domestic animals, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, pigs. Especially widely developed horse-breeding. Coney pure blood of Sogdiana were known from the Mediterranean Sea to the Pacific Ocean.

In ancient times through Central Asia conducted a brisk trade between East and West. Through Sogdian city passed the famous "silk road" crossing the Asian continent. Samarkand was the main crossroads of important caravan routes from India, Byzantium, China, Tibet, Iran, Siberia, and Scythia.

The peoples of Sogdiana, maintaining close economic relations with East and West, North Atlantic rum and South, have enriched our culture and at the same time had a strong influence on the development of neighboring countries. Proved that, for example, the Chinese took from the peoples of Central Asia, alfalfa, grapes, pomegranate, walnut, many garden plants. China has taken from the valleys of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Zarafshan culture of cotton. From the Ferghana Valley are the same Chinese exported horses, they called for the beauty, tireless, playfulness, "heavenly." Living in Sogdiana, in turn, borrowed from the East sericulture, paper production, the art of making gold and silver jewelry, arms deal.

In the last century to a new era in the fight against the foreigners Sogdian were frequent changes in maps of Central Asia, evolved and decayed major public education, such as Greco-Bactrian kingdom and many others. In the I century AD Sogdiana and Bactria became part of the powerful slave state known to history as a Great Power, Kushan. Kushan period (I-IV century AD) for Central Asia was a period of significant growth. At this time enlivened by city life, and enhanced trade ties Sogdian cities, including Samarkand, with China and India. From East Asia imported silk, jade, iron, nickel and articles of lacquer and leather, and from Central Asia took out the glass, precious stones and adornments. From India instead of glass products and other Central Asian goods were brought spices, incense, paper and woolen fabrics.

In the middle of V century the Kushan empire, survived in the III and IV centuries deep decline, fell under the onslaught of the warlike nomadic tribes, known collectively as Ephtalites. In turn, in the IV century Ephtalits were swept away by the Turkic tribes that formed the Turkic Kaganat.

Despite the change of kingdoms and dynasties, Samarkand continued to play an important role in the economic, political and cultural life of Central Asia and the East.

Sogdian were known as skilled farmers and craftsmen, enterprising merchants, talented musicians and dancers. Craft is famous for its cities continued. Samarkand minted its own coins, conducted a lively trade with many countries had their own written language and literature. And not for nothing that the famous orientalist VV Bartold, speaking of the Sogdians, stressed that their cultural activities along the caravan routes of Central Asia, few cultural activities gives the Phoenicians along the Mediterranean trade routes. And indeed, it is difficult to overestimate the role of Sogdian in those days. They actually held in their hands trading in all the eastern section of the Silk Road that stretched from Merv to the River Huang Ho. Throughout the ancient trade route, they founded their colonies, established business and economic contacts with local merchants and citizens, are widely traded their goods.

Overcoming great obstacles created by the kings of Iran, the Sogdian merchants, whether penetrating farther and farther to the west. In the middle of the VI century, they tried twice to strike up a good relationship with the central regions of Iran. The first embassy from Sogdiana headed Maniahom was taken at the court of the Sassanid king very unkindly: Sogdian traders brought silk Persians ostentatiously burned in front of the ambassadors. Sogdians sent a new caravan. But this attempt ended tragically: the king of Iran ordered the poison ambassadors Sogd.

The cruel actions of the Iranian rulers could not shake the entrepreneurial spirit and perseverance of the Sogdian merchants. As evidenced by the Byzantine historian Menander, the messengers used by ancient Sogdiana steppe routes that bypass Iran along the northern shore of the Caspian, and to establish direct contact with Byzantium.

In Constantinople arrived Sogdian embassy. It was headed by the same Maniah. The Byzantine emperor, in turn, in 568, sent to Central Asia of its messenger.

In this way sogdians have forged strong commercial, diplomatic and cultural ties with the Byzantine Empire, lasted for many years. A measure of high culture and svoebytnoy Sogdian is their writing. They are usually written from right to left, lines are often placed vertically. Then wrote in black ink on the skin, sticks, tablets, clay shards, at least on paper. The earliest known science Sogdian texts are so-called "Old Letters," the expedition found A. Stein in 1906-1908 years. in the ruins of a watchtower to the west of Dunhuang. These documents date from the beginning of IV century BC. Studies have shown the French Iranist R. Goto, they are written in the Sogdian language and constitute private correspondence. In two letters, dictated by the scribe sogdiankoy Mevanchey ("Kitty" or "Tiger") in the name of his mother, who lived in Samarkand, reported anxiety these days, which then went through the Sogdian commercial colonies in East Turkestan in connection with the onslaught of the Huns, on trade matters; about the private life of the author's letters. For example, she complains of her sad fate - her guardian Nanidat wants to marry her, but she disagrees: "I would rather my wife a dog or a pig than his wife Nanidata" - wrote Mevancha his mother in Samarkand. But a few years later, everything changed. From another letter we learn that the girl became the wife of Nanidata that she is happy in marriage and tenderly cares for her beloved husband.

"Old Letters" were not delivered to recipients at Samarkand. Nearly 1600 years they have lain in the ruins of the tower until the beginning of XX century were not discovered by archaeologists.

And, finally, began talking Sogdiana. In the spring of 1965 under the loess strata afrasiabskih hills in one of the excavated areas, archaeologists discovered an inscription, kept silent for many centuries. Preliminary analysis of the text afrasiabskoy findings led to the conclusion that the inscription contains a message about the arrival of the embassy of the king of Samarkand Chaganian, an area located in the area then this Termez. The Embassy is headed, according to the inscription, head of the Office of the kind of Bur Zataki. The text consists of 16 lines and has remained almost entirely. Only at the end ruined four words. The inscription is believed to researchers, made a professional scribe and its language is very close to the end of the conversation VII - beginning of VIII century.

The inscription, deciphered VA Lifshits, reads as follows:
"When the ambassador arrived Hun king, he opened his mouth (and said):" I - chaganiansky Head of Chancery, on behalf of the Boer-Zataki (son of Bura), came from the state chaganianskogo Turantasha to Samarkand with an expression of reverence for the king of Samarkand. And here I am at the front (Samarkand), the king, full of reverence. And you do not have absolutely no suspicion of me - I'm well aware of the gods and Samarkand Samarkand writing and I am full of respect (?) To the power of (your) king, and you are in full prosperity. And also hunnsky king ... "(here the text destroyed). Chaganiansky So said Chief of Staff."

In addition to the king of Samarkand, whose name was not mentioned in the inscription mentions also "hunnsky king", and from the text that he was a prominent ruler - a part of his kingdom was to enter Chaganian, came from the embassy. We can assume that by "Hun king" should be understood Ephtalites governor, the speaker sometimes in written sources, under the name King Tokharistan. Very curious about Samarkand religion clause ("the gods") and writing - the ambassador wants to assure the people of Samarkand, he has no intention to infringe on their faith or in writing.

In addition to these sixteen lines of text in Sogdian Afrasiab found another ten titles.

Are afrasiabskaya painting and Sogdian inscriptions reflect the actual historical events? Or is it just a legend? Until this question is impossible to give an exact answer. Researchers believe that the names of the actors in the 16-row Sogdian inscriptions speak of the official event in the history of Sogdiana.

The high art of Samarkand at that time showed artistic merits of murals Afrasiab to occupy its rightful place in the history of world art.

New archaeological findings prove that Samarkand before the Arab conquest was one of the most brilliant centers of the Middle Ages. Not for nothing that the Arabs who've seen before Mesopotamia and Iran, admired the fertility and abundance of Sogdiana, dubbed him the "Garden of the victorious caliph." And the capital of Sogdiana - Samarkand, one of the participants of the tour Kuteyba wrote:
"Truly he is on his green like the sky, and palaces, its like stars in the heavens, and the river of his mirror for open spaces, and the wall of his sun to horizon!"

So caught Sogd and its flourishing center of Samarkand Arab hordes Kuteyba.


March on the capital of Sogdiana Arabs have taken in 712, leaving against Samarkand twenty thousandth vanguard of his troops. Conquerors fired the city walls of three hundred and missile weapons, causing massive destruction. Staunchly and courageously defended their city Sogdian, inflicting heavy losses on the attacker. The siege lasted a whole month. But despite the courageous resistance of Samarkand, Arab forces led by Kuteyba stormed into the city through the punched stenobitnymi machines in the walls of the holes and subjected him to merciless plunder.

From numerous ancient temples, which are famous Samarkand-mi, Kuteib had brought untold treasures, gold, silver, precious stones. A temple, representing the best examples of architecture, were burned and destroyed. In this case, killed a huge number of creations of folk artists, painters and sculptors.

To oppression and violence of Arab conquerors masses Maverannahr responded violent liberation struggle. At the beginning of 713 years in Samarkand anti-Muslim rebellion broke out. Sogdians refused to comply with the contract imposed on them by the conquerors, and were up in arms against the Arabs. To help the rebels came steppe Turks, solidarity with Sogdians in the fight against foreign invaders. Brutal, bloody struggle in Sogdiana did not stop for almost the entire period of Arab rule in Central Asia. The most significant was the revolt of 720-721 years, when the Arabs threw against an army of Samarkand punishers. Residents forced to leave his native town and fled in Khujand, were brutally massacred on the road.

But people do not give up. Anti-Arab and anti-feudal movement again soon swept the whole valley Zarafshan and Kashkadarya. The uprising that broke out in the 70 years of the VIII century, led by a man, went down in history under Arab Mukanna nickname that means "veiled". The rebels tried to destroy inequality and to end the Arab domination.

Appeal Mukanna called a warm response from citizens and Samarkand. Desperate foreign oppression city residents armed themselves and headed by a brave and resolute commander, Rafi ibn Lacey hit the hated invaders.

Elevated uprising, in the figurative definition Sadriddin Aini became a kind of "wind, swollen fire out of fire disturbance, blazing in the hearts of the people." Gathering of brave men, Rafi broke into the palace of Samarkand, killed Junaid ibn-Azadi, then ruled the city on behalf of the Arab governor of Khorasan.

With the collapse at the beginning of IX century, the Arab Caliphate rule in the country went to the local inherit the dynasty Takhirid, and IX-X centuries - Samanids. The period of a new upsurge of Samarkand. The city began to grow, expanding to the south and gradually going beyond Afrasiab.

During the XI-XII centuries Samarkand several times of transition from one to the other conquerors.


In the spring of 1220 in Maveranakhr broke the black hordes of Genghis Khan. Their cruel conquerors terrified by the enslaved peoples.

"They have no pity on anyone else - suggests a contemporary historian of the invasion of the XIII century by Ibn al-Asr - and beat men, women, babies, ripped the womb of pregnant women and fetuses were sacrificed. Sparks of the pogrom swept in all directions and extended to all evil, as cloud, which drives the wind. "

The country languished under the Mongol yoke.

Desperate masses of people have repeatedly been raised to fight the invaders and local feudal lords. One such major national-liberation movements was the revolt of the craftsmen and peasants under the leadership of Mahmoud Taraba. It began in 1228 in Bukhara. The insurgents were expelled from the city of Mongolian officials and Baskakov and won the battle with a large detachment of invaders. But the Taraba killed in action.

In the same period in Central Asia obost is lost class struggle. Growing discontent of the masses against the foreign invaders, against the intolerable oppression of feudal lords summoned a powerful liberation movement of the urban working people. The rebels called themselves sarbadarami, ie, people condemned to the gallows. For the first time sarbadarov movement manifested itself in the thirties of the XIV century in Khorasan and quickly spread among the peasants and artisans Maverannahr.Sarbadary performed with the expanded program of social equality and equal distribution of consumer goods. Their ideas have attracted attention everywhere. In Khorasan sarbadary even managed to create their own state, existed from 1337 to 1381, almost forty-five years. In sarbadarov was his army, his own coin, its laws and firm orders.

Speaking against the Mongol elite, against the feudal lords who did not unbearable and difficult life of peasants and artisans, sarbadary said:
"All of the oppressors, all-powerful, united, oppressed. With God's help we will destroy oppression. But otherwise we will perish on the gallows. We do not have the strength to endure the oppression and suffering."

Chroniclers of the time reported that the Mongol Khan appealed to the leader of the uprising sarbadarov with a message demanding "bow" and "lower wings in front of the oppressors of the time, throw away the dream of the impossible" and halt the rebellion. In response, the insurgents boldly declared:
"Why would bow before the oppression of the time,
Why put up in front of each lower case?
Sea and mountains, we overpowered and rush forward,
And as the eagle, the flight over land and water
Or reach our goal - will stand firm with your foot on the ground.
Or, as befits the men, add a head for the cause of honor. "
Ideas and appeals sarbadarov lit and working people of Samarkand. Frightened by the threat of capture of his native city hated by the Mongols, under the Samarkand nabatnuyu roll of drums and trumpets gathered in a central square near the main mosque.

Madrasa student Maulana-Zadeh appealed to the ten thousandth crowd citizens with hot words, call:
"Countless hordes of Mongols invaded our country. Their purpose - to robbery. The enemies are approaching the city, - he said. - Our governor, who charged from each resident of back-breaking taxes, and taxes, which spent the stolen money to their every whim, at its discretion, when an the enemy fled for their lives. left us to fend for themselves. Now, what would be the ransom for his life or give you - the citizens of Samarkand, you will not be saved from the enemy. Who now will protect the residents of our city who wish to take responsibility for it before eminent persons and the general public? "We bow our heads before a man and fulfill their responsibilities."

Call Maulana-Zadeh was picked unanimously, and Samarkand rose as one to protect the native walls.

However, to know and the higher clergy were unwilling to accept authority sarbadarov, which they openly called "contemptible rabble." Patriotic Movement of Samarkand sarbadarov was treacherously and with unprecedented brutally suppressed. In defeating his main role was played by emirs Husayn and Timur, pretended to the throne of Samarkand.




In 1370, with the support of the higher clergy and the urban elite, Timur was able to eliminate its primary and a very dangerous opponent Hussein. After seizing power in the city, Timur immediately declared himself the sole ruler Maverannahr and declared Samarkand as its capital.

True, while Timur decided not titulovat Khan himself and undertook to rule the state on behalf of some unknown to anyone, "the descendant of Genghis Khan, who was listed as an official monarch, but in fact now the power over the land owned by Timur. Since that time, and begins a rapid rise of "Iron hromtsa.

Timur, or Timurleng in Russian chronicles Tamerlane, was born April 9, 1336, in the village of Khoja Ulgar, near modern Shakhrisyabz, family lords of the Turko-Mongol tribe of Barlas. Timur deftly used the strife between the feudal lords, sought to win the support of powerful individuals from feudal lords, from the midst of the big traders, and especially the clergy, to support whom he often resorted to far-reaching political purposes. Contemporaries describe Timur as a man who has the courage, cruelty, natural intelligence, organizational and military capabilities.

Waging continuous wars for 35 years, Timur was able to create an empire that stretched from the Volga to the Ganges, from the Tien Shan to the Bosphorus. The richest countries Ny East, including Iran and India, have become prey to brutal conqueror. The greatest flowering of the city were razed to the ground. Was killed and a rich, densely populated center of Khorezm - Urgench. After three campaigns (1389, 1391, 1394-1395 gg.) Timur fell under the blows of the powerful Golden Horde.Capital of Sarai-Berke Timur crushed and burned.

In the years 1397-1398 Timur made a devastating campaign in northern India. In 1399 he invaded the Caucasus and ravaged Georgia in 1401 - Syria. In 1400, Timur started a war in Asia Minor and the Turkish sultanate. At the Battle of Ankara, in which each side were more than 200,000 soldiers, he defeated the Turkish army and captured most of the Sultan Bayazid. Egypt recognized the power of Timur without resistance.

The capital of the state Timur made Samarkand. By order of the formidable ruler here from the conquered lands forcibly resettled thousands of skilled craftsmen and destroyed without indemnity entire neighborhoods, leaving the homeless poor, previously yutivshihsya in the construction area. Cruel, ruthless measures Timur accelerated the transformation of Samarkand, a major city, desiring in every way threw out the pre-eminent value of its capital are among the most famous cities in the medieval world.

In the years 1371-1372, Samarkand was surrounded by a solid wall length of about seven kilometers from the six gates. In the western part of the city (now the Theatre Square) was built a citadel to the residence of Timur, surrounded by a wall height of 8 meters. In the citadel there were two gates - the east and west. The first exit in the direction of the Registan. Inside the citadel was the palace of the Kok-barn once known for his throne and a magnificent stone Koktash receiving room, a place where the ceremony of presentation the formidable ruler of foreign ambassadors, military leaders and the nobility. Next to the Cock-a shed. building housed government offices and weapons workshops.

The official center of Samarkand since Timur made Registan Square. Here, the sounds of the huge copper pipes dzharchi-criers proclaimed citizens of grace and fierce retribution ruler. Here, publicly committed the bloody executions, proclaimed the beginning and end of wars and campaigns. This was the triumphant winner, to pokichitsya to Samarkand looted trophies in far away countries, the production and the severed heads of enemies, stuck on long spikes. Here is on the Registan sbegalis rebellious people to go from here in the quarters of the nobility, to smash the hated oppressors and tyrants.

As conceived by Timur's grandeur and beauty of Samarkand had to outshine all the capitals of the world. Arab historian Ibn Arabshah, who lived in the middle of the XV century, says that Timur has appropriated a number of newly built in the vicinity of Samarkand, the most prominent names of villages and glorious cities in the world - Misr (Cairo), Dimishk (Damascus), Baghdad, sultans, Shiraz. In part, these names remain names mahallas - quarters of Samarkand to the present day.

Extant buildings since Timur - wonderful mausoleums of Shah-i-Zinda, Bibi Khanum mosque, the tomb of Gur-Emir. In the vicinity of the capital were built then buried in the shady gardens of suburban palaces: Bugs-plane, Bugs-Dilkusho, Bugs-Balyand, Bugs-Shamal.

Genzeles Ruy de Clavijo describes the times of Tamerlane of Samarkand:
"The city of Samarkand lies on the plain. It is surrounded by an earthen rampart and moats. The whole town is surrounded by gardens and vineyards. So many of these orchards and vineyards that once drove up to the city, you see a forest of tall trees, and the middle of it the city itself. The city and the gardens are a lot of full-flowing channels ... The city is replete with various goods that are brought into it from other countries: in Russia and Tartary, from China, from India.

... So many people all gathered together he and all the land in this city, both men and women that just say it was 150 000. Between them there were many people of different tribes: the Turks, Arabs, Moors and other people of Armenian Christians and the Greeks ... That the people there were so many that he could not fit in any town or on the streets or in villages, and even out of town under the trees and in the caves it was amazing so much. "

Magnificent creations of craftsmen and builders, forcibly deported to Samarkand from the conquered countries, "master of the world," decorated the city. Survived to this day monuments of the reign of Timur are striking in their beauty and harmony of colors, the perfection of construction equipment.

In the last years of his life, Timur was preparing for a grand march on China but also in its very early, in February 1405, died at the age of 69 years near the town of Otrar. His body was transported to Samarkand and was buried in the mausoleum of Gur-Emir.

After the death of Timur again ignite civil wars and feudal strife. Five years into a bitter power struggle between the descendants of the conqueror. It ends with victory for the son of Timur - Shahrukh, who chose as his residence is not Samarkand, and Herat. Maverannahr he gave an inheritance to his eldest son - Ulugbek (1394-1449).

Forty years, from 1409 until his tragic death in 1449, ruled Ulugbek, where Samarkand more equip with modern conveniences and has become one of the world centers of science of the Middle Ages. Here, in Samarkand, the first half of the XV century. Around Ulugbek, a whole scientific school, bringing together prominent astronomers and mathematicians - Ghiyath al-Din Dzhemshida Kashi, Kazi-zade Rumi, Ali Kushchi.

In Samarkand, while living historian Hafiz-i-Abru, who wrote a remarkable work on the history of Central Asia, the famous physician Mavlono Nefis, poets, Siraj al-Din Samarkandi, Sakkaki, Lutfi Badakhshi, etc. These were the leading men of the time, who believed in the power of human reason, by science.

Hardly any of the cities of Central Asia lived through so many tumultuous events, turmoil and hardship, how many were destined to experience the Samarkand and Samarkand. Lush capital of Tamerlane, its wealth and grandeur attracted the greedy eyes of the conquerors, and each of them considered a great honor to take the throne of Samarkand.

At the beginning of the XVI century. Central Asian Timurid possessions were seized by nomadic Uzbeks. Their leader was Mohammed Sheibani Khan (1451-1510 gg.).

At the beginning of the XV century. Samarkand for a short time mastered the Timurid Fergana feudal Zahireddin Babur. In his famous memoirs, Babur was a description of Samarkand, at the time.

"Samarkand - a beautiful city - Babur wrote. - He has one feature that can be found in a few cities: every kind of industry and commerce carried out in special series, and not mixed. Beautiful custom. There is a good bakery and tavern. Best in light of the paper produced in Samarkand ... There is one case in Samarkand - crimson velvet to be exported to all countries ... Samarkand produces beautiful and lots of fruit: grapes, melons, apples, pomegranates are good also, and all other fruits. In the peculiarities of the glory of Samarkand apples and "Sahib" (grape) ".

Alisher Navoi in SAMARKAND
In the late 60-ies of the XV century. Samarkand has lived and studied the great Uzbek poet Alisher Navoi.

More than 3-year stay in the Alisher Navoi Samarkand from the end of 1465 to April 1469 was instrumental in the formation of Navoi as a poet. It was in Samarkand, he became acquainted with the work Sakkaki and other poets who have written on the old Uzbek language. In Samarkand circle of his friends and acquaintances turned out to be the ruler of Samarkand Khoja Ahmed Beg, himself wrote poems under the pen name Wafa, old and young scientists Abulaysi, Mohammed Alim Samarkandi, Hodge Hisrau, Alai Shoshi, Fazil Samarkandi, Jauhar, Khalilullah Samarkand. Navoi spoke enthusiastically about his mentor, scholar and poet Hodja Djalaliddin Fayzulla Abulaysi whom the poet calls "the most learned scholars of Samarkand". Abulaysi was an expert on philosophy, logic, law, mathematics, literature and Arabic language.He was cordial and considerate to his disciples, especially for Alisher. In his madrasa Navoi takes two years, studied the writings of Plato and Aristotle, Ibn Sina and Samarkand philosophers.

It is interesting impression of the Alisher Navoi Samarkand. He likened his paradise, and water Zarafshan called "honey, which gives many benefits to man." "All improvement in Samarkand and Bukhara valley depends on Rudy Kuhaka (Zarafshan). The very same Kuhak (present CHAPANATA) was named poet "treasure of the world, and its every stone - pearl.

Time of Troubles
The first half of XVII century in the history of Samarkand is associated with the activities of the Emir Yalangtushbiya Atalyka-Bohadura of the Uzbek kind Alchin.



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