Day Tour in Tashkent

Day Tour in Tashkent

Tashkent, Urgench, Khiva

Tashkent, Urgench, Khiva

Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand

Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand



Samarkand Day Tour

Samarkand Day Tour




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City, whose age is estimated more than twenty five centuries, fascinates and attracts with its beauty and uniqueness.

Modern Samarkand - the second city in Uzbekistan after Tashkent in population and territory industrial importance, the center of world tourism. Located on the left bank of the middle reaches of hilly Zeravshan.

The very nature has endowed Samarkand wonderful climate and clean water - it is located in one of the paradises of the Uzbek land.
The climate is continental-subtropical Samarkand. Number of clear days, 155, the amount of sunshine hours 2916, the average temperature of 13.4 years, in January -0, July 26, the absolute minimum of -27, the absolute maximum +45'.
The population of 364.3 thousand.
The main water artery of the city are River Zarafshan, channels Darga, Siab, Shaudar.

City History
Samarkand - one of the oldest cities in the world, as old as Rome, Athens, Babylon. True poets and historians of the past gives him such epithets as lush as the "Garden of Eden East", "Face of the Earth", "Precious Pearl of the Eastern world,"

The natural abundance of Zarafshan Valley, where there was Samarkand, praised in the holy hymns of the Avesta.
In the middle of the 1 st millennium BC Greek sources mention of Samarkand in the form of Marakanda in medieval ruins of the ancient Samarkand, were called Afrasiab. The earliest written mention of Samarkand refers to 329 BC. er. when the Greek - Macedonian army led by Alexander the Great conquered it. In the first century the city fell under the sway of powerful kangyuskoy power.
In the 6-7 centuries. stood at the head of Samarkand rulers ishhidy, acting in close contact with the Turkic Khanate. In late July - early August centuries. Central Asian troops came the Arabs - the conquerors.

In the spring of 1220 the city seized the hordes of Genghis - Khan, who destroyed its ancient foundation.
14-mid 15 th centuries. were marked by a significant rise of new economic, political and cultural life of Samarkand. And at this time has increased and international fame of Samarkand as the capital of Temur created a vast empire that stretched from the Volga to the Ganges, from the Tien Shan to the Bosphorus. The governor wanted to transform the beautiful city of Samarkand.

From each victorious campaign in India, Afghanistan, Iran, Syria, Caucasus, Turkey, he was sent to Samarkand's most skillful architects, jewelers, and scientists. In its power Temur was the creator - the creator. He generously encouraged artists and poets, thinkers and scientists. These genes will be passed and then his grandson - Ulugbek whose star catalogs, and maps, created five centuries ago, around the world admired today.
It was during the reign of Temurids Samarkand reached the highest peak.

The rulers of European countries considered it an honor to visit this city.
Samarkand - city of legends. Here every stone, ravine or water - a living legend of the past, every quarter of the city (Husar or Mahalla) stores, as pedigree, his legend. Sometimes legends acquires any historical event or a place dear to the heart of each of Samarkand.
In the years of independence, Samarkand flourished with renewed vigor. State and the President paid attention to the restoration of historic monuments and allocate more funds for their content.

Settlement of Afrasiab (VII century BC-XIII century AD) holds in its bosom the remains of the destroyed ancient Mongols of Samarkand.
The name "Afrasiab" associated with the name of the hero of the ancient epic "Shahnameh" - Afrasiab, mighty ruler of Turan. Afrasiab now - a huge cluster of barren hills. But in the past here seething life. This explains the keen interest of scientists to the settlement of Afrasiab.

The first monumental masonry walls fort dating back to VII-VI centuries BC
At the foot of the citadel of ancient times were urban neighborhoods with urban dwellings, temples, ponds and retail space. In the palace complex of the city, located in one of the quarters of 7.8 cc AD, were found the world-famous murals made Samarkand talented painters. The walls of the ceremonial hall are decorated with highly artistic painting, executed glue paints of clay plaster.
Unique genre paintings, murals are on walls in three tiers. Bright colors depicted scenes of the majestic procession of men carrying rich gifts and dressed in festive fancy costumes, the movement to the temple of the capital, scenes of fighting and hunting, the image of the water kingdom.

Discovered murals in the original are represented today in the museum Afrosiab.

Translates to "sandy place". The former was once the market square of Registan today on three sides by magnificent buildings decorate: Ulugbek madrasah (1417 - 1420), Sher Dor Madrasah (1619 - 1636), Madrasah Tilla-Kari (1647 - 1660).
Was originally built Ulugbek madrasah, in which there were fifty-hujras cells, where more than one hundred students. Among them, according to legend, lived and studied at the famous Tajik poet Jami. According to historical chronicles in madrassas taught a course in mathematics and astronomy itself Ulugbek. And in the yard were teaching a sundial.

Ulugbek madrasah strongly affected by time, earthquakes, especially in the years of strife in the early XVIII century. In the 30 years of the last century there were held a unique work on straightening dismissing towards its minaret.
In the XVII century on the Registan was built two madrassas - Dor and Tilla-Kari. They differ impressive size and luxury finishes. The most significant of madrassas called Dor - that is, "having the lions." It was built nearly 17 years on the project Samarkand ruler Emir Yalangtusha.Po elegance, lightness and beauty of the tiled finish is superior to all existing buildings.
Ten years later, at the same ruler was constructed madrasas Tilla-Kari Registan closing from the north. Name of Madrasah Tilla-Kari means in translation "trimmed with gold." The building is lavishly decorated in gilded embossed paintings. Tilla-Kori madrasah, in addition to its primary mission - teaching students, carries out also the role of the mosque.

Cathedral mosque Bibi Khanum (1399-1404 gg.). Building it was launched after Timur's victorious campaign in India. As conceived by Timur mosque Bibi Khanum was to outshine all I have seen them in other lands. To participate in the building were brought architects, artists, craftsmen and artisans from many countries of the East. Involved more than 700 people.
Entrance to the courtyard was decorated as a majestic portal with two round minarets, about fifty meters in height.
The walls of the premises outside were richly decorated with multicolored glazed bricks. Luxurious and rich interior finishes consisted of lining majolica mosaics, carved marble, embossed on a papier-mâché, gilded ornaments. The majestic beauty of this structure has created many legends associated with the talented architect and a beautiful woman Bibi Khanum.
History does not know the name of Bibi Khanum. It is known that the elder's wife's name was Timur Saray Mulk Khanum.
Shahi Zinda necropolis (XIV - XV centuries) .. It consists of eleven mausoleums, consistently is attached to one another for centuries.
Entrance portal of Shahi Zinda, zaverschayuschy whole ensemble, is a late construction. The inscription above the entrance reads: "This magnificent building is based Abdulazizhanom, son Ulugbek - Guragana, son of Shah Rukh, son of Amir Timur - Guragana, in 883, the (1434).
It was long thought that the first one buried in a mausoleum on the left Ulugbek fellow on science activities famous astronomer Kazyzade Rumi. However, research scientists have proved that in this mausoleum there are women's graves.
Climbing up the thirty-six steps of the old staircase, the visitor enters the public gallery. Here the left and right are the mausoleums, the tomb of Timur closest relatives, including his wife Tuman-aka and sisters-Shirin Bika-aka. Gallery ends with a round courtyard with a vaulted arch. Beneath it is the right antique carved door leading to the most ancient building of the ensemble Shahi Zinda - Mausoleum Kusam ibn Abbas. He declared a "saint" for preaching and planting of Islam in Samarkand after its conquest by the Arabs. Keepers of Shahi Zinda tell a legend that lived here Kusam ibn Abbas, was killed infidels in prayer. However, he took, and his head had disappeared in the well (in another version hid in a cave), where he continued, ostensibly, to live to this day. Hence the name "Shait Zinda" which means "The Living King". Tomb Kusam ibn Abbas, the fenced yard of a carved wooden lattice, tiled with tiles with Arabic inscriptions.
Architectural ensemble Shahi Zinda is a unique museum of glazed decoration XIV - XV centuries. Here you can find and irrigation carved terracotta, and fine examples of inlaid mosaic, and a large mosaic of glazed bricks. For subtlety, elegance and diversity of no architectural monuments of Samarkand can not be compared with the Shahi-Zinda mausoleums.

Gur Emir (1404g.) By order of Timur had erected a mausoleum Guri-Emir - Tomb of the Emir - for the ashes of his beloved grandson of Muhammad Sultan. The mausoleum Guri-Emir Mohammed Sultan but buried - Amir Timur, his two sons - Shahrukh and Miranshah, his grandson, the great astronomer Ulugbek, as well as spiritual leader Timur Muslim sheikh from Medina - The World Sayyid Bereke and a Shah-Hodge.
Majesty and lightness of architectural lines and shapes, richness of multi-colored mosaics - all this makes the mausoleum a unique monument of Central Asian architecture.

Ak-Saray Mausoleum (XV). Lack of historical data makes the construction somewhat mysterious. Suggest that the mausoleum could be a family burial place for the descendants of Tamerlane in the male line. It was erected in the 70-ies. XV century. When the funeral filled the Gur Emir and adjacent premises. Externally, the Ak-Saray seem unappealing - devoid of decoration, the dome was left unfinished. Feels kind of incompleteness. But in terms of architectural construction, he is unique - there used new technical designs and techniques. The interior decoration does not match the appearance - the wall, the sails and the dome covers the ornamental painting, executed in the technique of "kundal with abundant use of gold. Embossing, gold, and an extensive range of color tones in the color of the lush floral pattern reminiscent of rich carpeting.

In line with the Gur Emir mausoleum, there is another, earlier mausoleum, built by order of Amir Temur over the grave of the famous Sheikh XIV century Burhaneddin Sagaradzhi called Rukhabad. Mausoleum of Sheikh and Gur Emir located on one axis than emphasized the spiritual bond with the highly esteemed Temurids sheikhs. Mausoleum Rukhabad (1380-ies.) Name translates as "Abode of the Spirit." The Mausoleum was built of bricks in a cube on which the octagonal drum and dome. The building looks ascetic, as a mausoleum is not decorated portals, practically no decor.
Mosque of Hazrat-Hyzr (XIX cent.) Revered in Islam, the legendary old man, a wanderer, whose cult goes into the pre-Islamic times. He also is the custodian of water. It was believed that the meeting with Hazrat-Hyzr is unexpected and always brings happiness to people. The mosque was reconstructed several times and now includes the portal entrance, darvazahanu, lobby, covered with a ribbed dome on a multi-faceted drum hanaka and column aivan. The decor used sharp Ganj and ceiling paintings. The mosque is a fine example of folk architecture in Samarkand school.

Ulugbek Observatory (1428-1429 year). Built on a hill in Samarkand. It was a three storey building is covered with colored tiles round diameter and 46M height of not less than 30m. In the main hall was placed tremendous tool for observing the sun, moon and other luminaries of the firmament.
The basis of the observatory was giant goniometer (vertical circle) radius of the circle which is equal to 40.212 meters and the length of the arc was 63M. the main tool - sextant - was directed with remarkable accuracy on the meridian line from north to south.
The dimensions of the main instrument of its successful design, scientific knowledge Ulugbek and his associates have provided remarkable accuracy astronomical observations. The Observatory was for its time, a unique structure.
After the tragic death of the great astrologer reactionary clergy provoked a massacre of the observatory. Research Center was ravaged, plundered most valuable library, the researchers dispersed.
Mazar of Khoja - Daniyar (XV cent.) (The Prophet Daniyar). It is situated in a picturesque setting on a hillside ditch Siab abounding. There is a tradition in which the arrival of these holy graves associated with the name of Amir Temur, who had brought back from a hike to the west relics of the Prophet Daniyar for burial near Samarkand. Tradition also reports that the caravan stopped in this place, as the horse which carried the remains unwilling to move on. Amir Temur ordered to bury the relics of the saint in this place, and then to kick the horse has scored curative spring. Another legend tells us that buried in the tomb of the saint miraculously began to grow, reaching about 17 meters. Currently, a tomb, covered semnadtsatimetrovoy Dakhma, mazar, built over it recently, as well as the holy source located below a cliff, are places of pilgrimage and worship for the followers of three religions - Islam, Christianity and Judaism.

Mazar Chupa-ata (XV century).. To the north-east of Samarkand was built in honor of the mythical holy "father of shepherds, whose cult has long been popular among the people, especially among pastoralists. This is not the gravestones structure, not a mausoleum. In its architecture - is a mausoleum, although the archaeological autopsy found it neither burial nor tomb. Mazar crowns the rocky summit and is visible from any point in the city. The architecture of the monument - a small room, covered inner dome. There is also a second outer dome. By color scheme of external decoration mazar differed twofold harmony - turquoise dome blended with the blue of the sky, and an array of reasons, devoid of veneers - the color of the loess soil at its foot, as if to confirm the principle of respect of land - the sky. "

Park Bugs - maidan (XV century). In the past, at the foot of the slopes Chupanatinskih created one of the most beautiful country parks. His breakdown began when Timur and completed Ulugbek. Here was a two-storey palace "Chilsutun" (ie "sorokakolonny). Among the lush trees of the garden located elegant tents, pavilions, of which the most famous was the Porcelain Pavilion (Cheney Khan), lined with blue and white Chinese porcelain tiles, brought from the imperial workshops of the ruler of China. Also used tiles skilled local imitations of him on faience, made Samarkand potters. Unfortunately, the building is not preserved.
Memorial Complex Imam al-Bukhari (1998). It is located 12 kilometers from Samarkand. Once upon a time, here at the tomb of Muhammad ibn Ismail Bukhari mosque was built. Himself Imam al-Bukhari was born in the IX century in Bukhara, but he died and was buried near Samarkand in 870, he from childhood, a passion for hadith, tirelessly collecting and recording stories, many of which were subsequently incorporated in "Shariah". Imam assembled and streamlined 7275 hadiths. In 16. over his grave was erected a small mausoleum near mosque was built and planted with plane trees. In 1998, in connection with the celebration of 1225 anniversary of the birth of Imam at the site of the ancient mausoleum was erected a memorial complex. The architectural solution of the modern complex with an area of 10 hectares based on the use of national traditions. It consists of the mausoleum, mosques, administrative buildings and other structures built along the perimeter of the courtyard. On the central axis of the complex is the mausoleum of Imam al-Bukhari. This structure in the form of a cube topped semnadtsatimetrovym dome. The door on the right side of the mausoleum leads down to Dakhma - a place of worship. Right under the decorated light blue onyx Sagan top floor of the tomb of al-Bukhari, covered with marble. On the left side of the courtyard is the mosque, an area which allows both believers to pray in 1500. The walls are decorated with light green, blue and white glazed tiles, marble, onyx and granite floors are decorated girihom; in finishing is also widely used Ganj. Inside the dome is decorated with colorful ornaments. In mikhrab niche hangs Kisva - matter Kaaba, donated Uzbekistan King of Saudi Arabia. Located behind the mausoleum Education Center (Dorus-Hadith), which examines the science of Hadith. The memorial complex is also a place of Muslim worship and preserve the sacred tomb. A visit to this holy place for Muslims is equated to the small Hajj. It's no wonder the people say: "If Mecca - the heart of the Muslim world, Samarkand - his head!".

Bridge vododelitel (early XVI century).. Remains of the bridge across vododelitelya Zarafshan are artefacts, which is located slightly below the modern railway bridge. As the notes of geographers who visited the valley of travelers around the same place was even more ancient bridge built by Temurids, and before him - a bridge, dating to around 8-9 centuries.
Vododelitel bridge was built by Khan Sheibani at the beginning of the XVI century. Currently, the bridge has been preserved only a brick arch.
Samarkand wonderful city - that neither the street, the ancient monument, or his remains. But Samarkand is also a modern city. Engineering work here, Lift, superphosphate, fruit-canning plants, knitting, tea-packing, clothing, footwear, furniture factories. The modern city of well-landscaped, it is decorated with many shady squares and parks.
Complex Gods Eram "opened recently. In the once neglected corner of city park created man-made lake, which is crowned by a huge amphitheater with 3,500 seats. Complex immediately became a true resting place of people. On hot summer evenings jet fountains create a special microclimate here.

In 1996, when the city was awarded the Order of Amir Temur, the number one, the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov said: "Samarkand - a city with a glorious past, a happy present and eternal future."


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