Day Tour in Tashkent

Day Tour in Tashkent

Tashkent, Urgench, Khiva

Tashkent, Urgench, Khiva

Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand

Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand

ART & CRAFTS IN MODERN UZBEKISTAN

ART & CRAFTS IN MODERN UZBEKISTAN
 * KOKAND * RISHTAN * FERGANA * MARGILAN *  2 DAYS / 1 NIGHT


Samarkand Day Tour

Samarkand Day Tour

LEGENDARY CAPITALS OF CENTRAL ASIA

LEGENDARY CAPITALS OF CENTRAL ASIA 
 * BUKHARA *  SHAKHRISABZ * SAMARKAND *  5 DAYS / 4 NIGHTS

 

Tour in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan 3

Tour in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan 3Tashkent, Khiva, Bukhara, Samarkand, Bishkek, Issyk-Kul, Karakol, Tamga
13 day

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 2

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 2Tashkent, Khiva, Bukhara, Samarkand, Fergana, Rishtan, Margilan, Osh, Bishkek, Issyk-Kul
15 days

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 1

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 1Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand, Bishkek, Son-Kul, Issyk-Kul
12 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 1

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 1Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Merv, Ashgabat, Dashoguz, Kunya-Urgench, Khiva, Urgench
11 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 2

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 2Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Gonur (Margush), Merv, Ashgabat, Kunya-Urgench, Khiva
12 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 3

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 3Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Turkmenabad, Koytendag, Kuguitang, Merv, Ashgabat, Gas crater, Kunya-Urgench, Khiva
14 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 4

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 4Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Merv, Ashgabat, Darvaza, Dashoguz, Khiva
12 days

Khiva

      According to legend, an old man dying of thirst in the desert, hit a stick and saw a place strike a well of water. Surprised, he exclaimed, "Hey Wah," and founded the town near the well.
Long history of Khiva is inextricably linked with the fate of Khorezm. Period of expansion when the Khorezm became the head of the powerful state formations, interspersed with heavy falls, when its towns and villages were dying from the devastating invasions.
Khiva is located on the western Khorezm region, at an altitude of about 100 m above sea level. Near start boundless expanse of the great desert of Kyzyl-Kum. City fed by the waters channel Pahlavan.
                           
        It is noteworthy that in the XIX-early XX centuries. City in final form emerged in the traditional plan of the flat: rectangle, stretched from north to south, split crosswise along the axes of the main streets. Its dimensions - 650h400 m - are in the ratio of the proportions of the "golden section", the favorite architect of all countries in the world. The size of settlements studied by archaeologists indicate that if their builders possessed the basics of applied geometry.
      Kun-Arc is located at the western gate of the city. This is the first stronghold, which has repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt again in the old place,
Outside of the rectangular core of Khiva has grown over the centuries suburb - rabad, which in the middle of the XIX century. too, was surrounded by walls. So in Khiva on the current two cities: internal - Ichon-Kala and external - Dishan feces. The highest flowering of architecture reached Khiva in the XIX century. When unfolded construction in connection with the expansion and consolidation of Khiva, khanate.
The most interesting thing in Khiva - are preserved like nowhere structure of the city and place it in each type of building. There appears to feel entirely unified ensemble architectural environment of eastern cities.
Simplicity and expressiveness of the ensembles of Khiva - the result of high culture, development of professional skills of their authors. The contrasting combination of opposites: the sculptural form of domes, vertical flat roofs and the minarets of the background development of residential areas, sunlit surface of the deaf walls and deep dips shaded niche portals and aivans, large scale public buildings and small - mass housing - enhances the expressiveness of the whole, emphasizing each other.

Walls and gates of the city. The first thing that differentiates from other cities of Khiva - city walls Ichon-Qala, rare surviving example of a medieval fortifications. The basis of their elevated above the level of Dishan Kala, possibly due to the natural topography (after all, according to legend the city was founded on sandy hill). The walls are built of adobe blocks. Outside every 30 m favor massive rounded and faceted defensive towers. On top of the wall and towers encircling notched parapet with loopholes for firing at the attackers siege.
The system of defensive trenches were filled with water at the foot of the walls, and trails that are now visible from the south. From the north and west in their place now laid asphalt streets. The entire defense system was to give the impression of inaccessibility and awesome power.
The system also included the defense of Khiva and the gates are adapted to perform a watchdog of the city. This is a very impressively reflected in their appearance: on the sides of the arched passage constructed powerful tower above the gate passes patrol and shooting gallery. Roadway blocked or vault, or if the travel is long, domes, and on either side of the map has dome the same room where the guard, customs, courts, and sometimes prison.
  Gates in the cities of the East was given great importance, as well as entrances to the public and residential buildings: their impressive appearance was supposed to express the greatness and dignity of the city, building owner.

        Over time, the gates of Khiva lost their defensive function and became the elements of urban redevelopment.
        The gate outside the city, Dishan kala, preserved only if coming from the east to Khiva Coy darvaza and north - Kosh-Darwaza (double gate). They were built in the early XX century. The originality of their compositions in the double (kosh) chetyrehkupolnom travel, overlooking the road to Urgench. This structure is expressed on the facades of the gate. Passages flanked by towers and crowned on top of the sentinel arcature, elegantly decorated with brick tiles. On both sides of the passages - office space.
In a rectangle of walls in the inner city, Ichon-Qala, entered four gates, which approached the main highway. West Gate - Ata-Darwaza - have not survived, but in the 1970's. have been fully restored by documentary photographs of XIX century., by analogy with surviving gate from the south and north Ichon-Qala, which have a similar structure.                                                 
 
Khiva minarets
  In creating a unique silhouette Khiva exclusive role belongs to the minarets - ascending into the sky vertical lines mark the places of the former community centers.Their rhythm in Khiva counts major urban development module: minarets follow through Dishan Kalou and Ichon-Kala intervals exactly 200 m. At the entrance to the city from the east bay door Coy Darwaza, is captured in a single frame of the entire chain of: Abdul-bobo , Pahlavan-kari, Seyyed-Sheliker-bye, Islam-Khoja, Juma, Kalta Minor, Bika-jan-Bika.
          Khiva - the most "mnogominaretny" city of all the historical cities of Uzbekistan. Minarets Khorezm differ from maverannahrskih very important: the crowning of their arched lantern is not hanging over the barrel, and is within him, and found only a small arched openings, hence their special symmetry. Moreover, as Whatever they were numerous, none of the minaret is different: architects found in each case, the subtle pleasures in proportions, silhouette and architectural decoration.
           Minaret Islam-Hodge (1908 - 1910.) Remembered an easy and graceful silhouette, which culminated in the "inner city". He was at 1 m below the minaret of Kalyan (his height - 44,5 m), but it seems much higher than him, due to its shape. The trunk of Islam-Khoja, having a diameter below 9.5 m, reduced vigor and ends up only a small whisk cornice and cupola above the room crier. Brick inlay Kalyan minaret emphasizes its monumentality, thorough communication with the ground. A Minaret Islam-Khoja surrounded glittering ribbons facings and looking to the sky, the haze that dissolve, melt its mosaic of blue, blue, white, turquoise tiles. In its construction, and preparing decorative ornament attended the best artists of his time Balta Vaisov, Ishmuhammad Khudaiberdyev, Kalandar Kuchum etc.
      Kalta Minor (1851 - 1855 G.). He intended to become the largest minaret in Central Asia, if it had been completed: at the base diameter of 14.2 m height it would reach 70 m. According to the historian of Khiva Muniz, construction stopped in the middle of the death of Muhammad Amin Khan at. Minaret and called "Kalta," that is "short."
The minaret at the Juma Mosque (XVIII century).. The oldest and the second tallest minaret in Khiva is located near the former mosque. It was built to replace the destroyed building large court Abdurrahman Mihtarom. Unlike other minaret in Khiva, he almost never decorated.
Minaret of Tura-Murat-Tur (1888g.). This miniature minaret was now alone among the houses in front of Kun-arch, built in the eponymous mosque which has not survived.
     Minaret-Sayyid Sheliker-bai (30-40-ies. XIX century).. In a chain verticals, following the road east of Ichon-Qala, is one of the oldest minaret in Khiva architectural complex-Sayyid Sheliker-bai, outside the gates of Pahlavan-Darwaza. The complex includes several who joined to each other monuments: the four internal devyatikupolnuyu mosque and madrasa half, between which is very slender minaret with a tapered barrel (its height - 24 m, diameter at the base - 4m).
    Minaret Abdal-bobo - small (height - 10 m, base diameter - 3,2 m), but expressive, with a sharply reduced the diameter of the barrel up a plump, topped with an elegant cornice - Sharaf. On the way to Coy Darwaza, is an architectural complex of Abd-al-bobo, which developed around a small-town cemetery. Here on the shores of House in a big quarter mosque traded slaves.
    Minaret Pahlavan-Kari (1905), built with the same number of madrassas Khorezm merchant, to perpetuate the way his name for posterity. Pahlavan-curry - one of the most monumental minarets Dishan feces.
   Minaret Bica-Bica-jan (1894g.). It is located outside the gates of the Ata-Darwaza. It is like twice the minaret Abdal-bobo. In memory of the old-timers keep the name who built his master - usto Namlak.
Madrasah in Khiva building among the surviving monuments of architecture is dominated by madrassas. They have different values, but reproduces a single type of composition: yard complex in the entrance of concentrated public halls and lobby, situated around a courtyard residence. Living section is usually out of the room and the entrance lancet niche, but in large buildings of the Khan's two-room section do sometimes, as in the palaces, just had a vaulted ceiling.
         In Khiva Madrasah as always, the principle of the new interpretations of traditional themes. Their volume, depending on the location, then stretched in the longitudinal, then the transverse axis, splits in two, got some fantastic circuits, squeezing in urban areas of incorrect configuration. Axis of the court highlighted two or four portals changed floors. Each time the system is proportional to the re-designed the monument, construction overlap and composition of decor, but the type of building with a courtyard preserves the. Just to name a chief of the numerous monuments.
    Madrassas Shirgazi Khan (1718 - 1720 gg.). The oldest in Khiva, located in the heart of Ichon-Qala. It was built by slaves captured Shirgazi Khan in a campaign to Khurasan;
after the construction they were promised freedom. Masonry was completed in one year, but Shirgazi tightened the job, and in 1726. rebellious slaves killed in an unfinished Khan madrasa. His mausoleum is adjacent to the main facade of the building. Date of completion of construction is encrypted historian Muniz in poetic streak - Tarija "Death of the slaves accept."
   Medrese of Muhammad Amin-inaka (1785). Small madrasas had been built in front of the Juma Mosque. Shape of the lot affected by his plan - madrassas is elongated in the transverse direction. Among the facilities here is the tomb, possibly of the builder of the building.
          Madrassas Kutlug Mourad inaka (1804-1812 gg.) Initiated an ensemble of large buildings at the eastern gate Yichang-Kala. It is built uncle of Allah Kuli Khan, who was buried there, beneath the floor of the central compartment vestibule. Dates of construction are read in the inscriptions carved wooden doors. Composition of the madrassas - the canonical, with the correct chetyrehayvannoy circuit court. Parallel to the main facade is a suite of five rooms, the extreme of them - darshana and a mosque, the average amount units pass into the courtyard CASE-shed. In the courtyard there is arranged an indoor dome well - kuduk that supplied water to all the people of Khiva.
   Medrese of Allah Kuli Khan (1834-1835 gg.) Situated opposite Kutlug Mourad inaka and is one of the richest on the finish. As the inscription on a column of his front door. In the madrasa's city library, which enjoy all of Khiva Madrassah students.
Medrese-Kalan Kazi (1905), a small plain in architecture is now in its khujdras arranged exhibition of the Museum of Applied Art and Life of Khorezm.
     Islamic madrassas Hodge (1910). Its position in the center of Khiva noted famous minaret of the same name. Madrasahs, built on the site close, small, but its main facade, raised to a height of two floors, is a worthy backdrop minaret. This is one of the most recent madrasa in Bukhara. Work performed usto Hudaibergen Hodge usto Ish-Muhammad and usto Bolt.
Medrese of Muhammad Rahim Khan (late XIX century.). The monumental architectural monument located in front of Kun-Ark. It has a closed space with a patio khujdras before the main facade, which is typical in Khiva and other madrassas (madrasahs unpreserved yards before Muhammad Amin Khan, Amir of the tour is now restored). Courtyard madrasa Muhammad Rahim Khan - double decker and vestibule of the nine sections - the most branched of all known Central Asian madrasas. The dimensions of this large monument - 62.4 h49, 7m, the court-29h28, 3 pm
       Medrese of Muhammad Amin Khan (1852-1855 gg.). It has impressive size (71,7 x 60m x 38m yard -38), built at the western gate of Ichon-Qala. It was the rich theological school, which owned extensive Endowment income and assets. Here, as in the madrassas of Muhammad Rahim Khan, were arranged comfortable doubles khujdras and balconies that overlook the exterior facade on the second floor. Now here was placed Tourist Hotel Khiva.
 
Mosque in Khiva
   Juma mosque (in the XVIII century.) Situated in the heart of Ichon-Kala was built khan dignitary Abdurrahman Mihtarom at the consecration of a tradition place: Khiva mosque here is mentioned the Arab geographer Makdisi (al-Muqaddasi). The building plays a rare Central Asian type of archaic multicolumn mosque. Essentially, it's just a wooden canopy over the area.
        Roof with three light wells supports a forest of carved wooden columns, 25 of them - the old, from X to XVI centuries. Among them are particularly valuable four columns X-XI centuries. They are installed, as evidenced by carved Kufic inscriptions on them, by order of Faqih Abul Fadl al-Muhammad Lyaysi apparently has made this generous gift of a mosque in the order of charity.
On the marble slab, the right of the mihrab, engraved text vakfname, that is, dedication of an instrument of permanent possessions and income mosque. At the southern entrance door has a date - 1203 AH, ie 1788 Entrance gate-Juma, inserted into the main doorway next to the minaret, rightly considered one of the masterpieces of wood carving in Khorezm.

            Ak-Mosque (1838-1842gg.) Situated in the ensemble at the eastern gate Ichon-Qala. This is a monumental domed hall, surrounded on three sides by columned aivan. Foundation was laid in 1657, essentially the same building, as indicated by the inscription on the door, rebuilt in 1838-1842.
The composition of some quarter mosque in Khiva is complemented by an elongated courtyard, where the go, as in a residential home, single-line high-ulu quince and opposite him a low-Ters aivan, attached to the premises at the entrance. In folk architecture quarterly mosque unites an abundance of carved wood. Among the magnificent columns aivans have samples of very old, as in other monument early XIX century. - Mosques Bogbonly.
         
Mosque Bogbonly (1809) is located in the southern city on the road to Tash-Darwaza. As mentioned in the inscriptions, interwoven into the painting ceiling, it was built in 1224g. AH. Same date and name of the architect - Pahlavan-coolies, who owns the author's intent of the building, written in verse on a stone slab laid to the east of the entrance to the mosque. On the front door - the name of another master woodcarver Roose Muhammad, son of Adin Muhammad. Aivan carved wooden columns, similar in character thread with columns XIV century. in the Juma mosque are of great artistic value, is seen archaic stylized fish and birds. It is possible that the mosque in 1809 were used the previous parts of the building.
 
Mausoleums
     For Khorezm typical form is very high with mausoleums utonyayuschimsya up a portal, crowned with a double arcature and notched brick cornice.
     Uch-Ovliya mausoleum (XVI century). - Title monument translates as "The Mausoleum of the Three Saints" It was built on once-suburban cemetery, which was filled up to the XX century., Burying the lower parts of the building walls. Now he stands behind the palace Tash -Hawley.
Archaeological excavations mausoleum released from deposits. The vast hall is covered with a dome on the arched sails with characteristic angles of Khorezm filled honeycomb stalactites. Faceted niche in the back of the hall is crowned with stellate reticulo-set "kolab-kari", reminiscent of the work of masters of Bukhara XVI century. Who may have participated in this building. The names of the same Khiva virtuoso wood carving imprinted on the front door portal.
Mausoleum of Sayyid Allauddina (XIV century, XIV cent.). In Khiva remained buried in the ground for 500 years of his life the famous monument of architecture - the two-chamber, which is located between the madrasa of Muhammad Amin Khan and Matniyaz-fold-run. A small shrine with a unique majolica tomb was built in the first half of the XIV century. And in the XIX century to her from the west was added to a spacious room - ziarethana with the portal entrance. Tombstone gurkhan performed in Khorezm traditions XIV century.
In the center of Ichon-Qala was now a vast architectural complex, who grew up near the grave of the remarkable poet Pahlavan-Mahmud, a resident of Khiva, who died in 1322 or in 1325, he was also a famous wrestler and a craftsman - a master on sewing of fur coats. The name of the hero legend turned into a feast - the patron saint of Khiva. In Babur say about him:
"... one of incomparable men of that time was Pahlavan Mohammad Syed Boo. He was an outstanding wrestler, and also make poems ... Pahlavan Mohammad was a man, pleasant in conversation, a combination of fighter craft such properties - quite amazing. "
Poet and humanist extolled moral purity rights, denounced their oppressors.
Pahlavan was buried in the courtyard of his workshop, and over time this tomb was the basis of extensive cemetery.
The existing entrance to the architectural complex was designed, as evidenced by the inscription on the door at 1113g. AH (1701) Construction Shahniyazhanom domed kiosk - darvaza-khans ..
Tomb and the tomb of Pahlavan-Mahmud, like Khan's, were "dressed" with time Khiva blue-blue majolica tiles. Majolica highest artistic merits covers all the walls and domes inside the building, which was extended further in 1825. Annexe east gallery.
Among the epigraphic ornaments, there are philosophical sayings such as: "Man does not become, not yet serve humanity."
Building inscriptions tell us the names of the masters, and decorated majolica vozvedshih this magnificent monument of architecture. Around the courtyard in front of the mausoleum was built mosque-aivan. Pilgrims from distant places found refuge in khujdras-cells. Was provided and the refectory - oshhona the kitchen. In 1913. in the courtyard in front of the mausoleum was built a modern two-storey building. In one of its rooms arranged a splendid tomb Isfendiyar Khan.

At the end of the XIX century. cemetery for the construction of the mausoleum of shielded four karihana and madrassas Yakubbay Hodja. Karihana - charitable institutions - were home a haven for the blind because of the strong dusty winds in Khorezm was the great number of eye diseases. Karihana takes Bukhara street, goes around the rear of the complex Pahlavan-Mahmud. In architecture, they combine the features of the home and small madrasas.
Land of Khorezm - the birthplace of prominent mathematician of the Middle Ages Al-Khwarizmi, whose terms "algebra" and "algorithm" entered modern science. In Khiva is a monument to a famous scientist. Sculptor S. Babayan portrayed mathematics at the time of in-depth reflection on next treatise presented in the form of a scroll, long curled edge of which falls from the stone to the ground.
All museums Khiva include in a single complex of the State Historical-Architectural Museum-Reserve Ichon-Kala.
Museum of the History of Khorezm named Al-Khwarizmi and Biruni was built for the anniversary of al-Khwarizmi (architect C. Sutyagin). Exposition of the museum was moved from the former palace of Tash-Hauli.
Department of Archaeology is based on the materials of the Khorezm Archaeological and ethnographic expedition under the leadership of the famous orientalist SP Tolstova. In ancient times the territory of Khorezm existed vysokotsivilizovannye state.The museum of archaeological finds from the ancient settlements Koykrylgan-kala (III century. BC. Er.) And Toprak-kala (VI cent. Mr. Er.). In the temple premises was found a sculpture called "Khorezm goddess with a vessel, a copy of which can be seen in the museum. It is interesting sculptures and fragments of monumental murals found in the palace of Toprak-kala.
On culture of the Middle Ages tell archaeological materials, models of architectural structures, fragments of ceramic coating, discovered at the restoration work in the Yichang-Kale and Dishan feces.
To other museums in Khiva adapted monuments of medieval architecture - the former palaces, mosques and madrassas.
Museum of Applied Art and Life of Khorezm in madrassas Kazi, Kalyan and includes works of the XVIII-XIX. and some samples of the XX century. Khiva guests can meet here with the products of craftsmen who created the beautiful designs of jewelry, carpet weaving, pottery, woodcarving and stone, and copper coinage. A collection of women's jewelry attracts a variety of techniques characteristic of Khorezm. Here, head, shoulder, forehead, temple, ear, nose, neck, chest, waist, wrist adornments, which feature - a harmonious relationship with the clothing, the multi-tier form, an abundance of waving pendants.
Local features different art-metal. Ornament covered with elongated slender kettles (choydishi), trays, jugs for washing pots for me, pencil cases, etc. Sometimes patterns include an inscription, often poetic expression. A model of this vessel is on display.
The Museum of Applied Arts can be found with all the variety of forms of Khorezm ceramics. In the middle of the XIX century. it suffered its new prosperity. The exhibition features works by famous artists - usto Allakora, usto Yusupkulola, Iskander Kalanta-Rova and other products are characterized by artistic originality in both forms, and in colors, mostly green. In the motifs painted ceramic masters from Khorezm use specific subject image - pots, knives, musical instruments, guns, etc.

Khorezm is famous for its carved wood. The museum presents works craftsmen of Uzbekistan, woodcarver ata Palvanova, whose works were exhibited at international exhibitions.
Craft Museum is located in the building of madrasas Matpana-bai. It presents exhibits reflecting life and the tools of artisans Khorezm.
Skill blacksmiths, gunsmiths, jewelers, masons, tanners, potters, weavers reached in XIX-XX centuries. high level. Khiva is famous for its craftsmen, jewelers, tinsmith, masters of painting on wood, carpet. It worked carvers ganch, engravers, there woodworking shops and workshops for the production of woolen fabrics, leather goods, has been the development of art taps into the fabric. With many kinds of crafts, with tools, as well as its results can be found at the Museum of Craft - the only one in Uzbekistan. Not far from the museum is the anvil. In a small studio overlooking the street, the fire burns, and in front of curious onlookers made a pitcher. So clearly demonstrates the art of folk artists of Khiva.
By decision of UNESCO Khiva is included in the treasury of world heritage.


 

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