Day Tour in Tashkent

Day Tour in Tashkent

Tashkent, Urgench, Khiva

Tashkent, Urgench, Khiva

Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand

Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand



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Samarkand Day Tour




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"The noble, sacred, priceless, the city - museum, city of poetry and fairy tales." And all this - about Bukhara.
Attracts its romantic image of tourists from around the globe, despite the sharp continental climate.
Summer in Bukhara is hot and dry, the average temperature in July reaches +30' C.Winter is relatively warm: average January temperature is 0 'to - 4'S. The average annual temperature exceeds 15'S.

This amazing city since the formation and before 1920 shall not exceed the limits set in the XVI century, a powerful fortress wall.
Modern Bukhara was placed on an area of ​​over 710 hectares. This territory remained around 170 monuments. The basic layout of the city, the current depending on the terrain, preserved to this day.

According to historical chronicles, in VI. the city bore the name - Numichkat in VII-VIII v.kitayskie sources call it - of down, Buho, According to the ancient caravan route followed not only merchants and diplomats, travelers, and the dervishes, but come on and the invaders. Many times in its history, the city was destroyed and burned, but from the ruins again and again revived life.

And today, Bukhara - a living embodiment of a centuries-old history of the city, the true chronicle in stone. Architectural creativity of the ancient architects - our precious asset.
The city is now home to 241,300 people have survived not only the individual mosques, madrassas and mausoleums, but whole areas of ancient planning. Here is heard the Uzbek, Tajik, Russian speech, hand in hand living and working more than 80 nationalities. The city declared a state historical-architectural museum-reserve.

Historical background of Bukhara and Bukhara region

The traditional date of Bukhara on Narshakhi 3000 years.
The oldest materials shakhristan city "Buho" 2500.
The oldest materials Arch "Numi 4-3 cc BC
The earliest mention in the Chinese five centuries AD
Taking the city of Bukhara, 707 Arabs
The coming to power in Bukhara Samanids Ismail 874
Bukhara - the nation's capital Samanid 829-999 GG
Bukhara in the Karakhanid State 11-12 centuries.

Bukhara in the state Khorezmshakhs years 1212-1220.
Bukhara in the Mongol ulus Chagataidov 1220-1370gg.
Membership in the power of Amir Temur 1370g.
The state capital and Sheybanihana Ashtarkhanids 16 century.
Branch of the khanate of Bukhara Fergana Valley early. 18 th century.
The establishment of a protectorate of Russia in 1873
The establishment of the People's Republic of Bukhara, 1920.
Membership in the Uzbek SSR in 1925
Bukhara province as part of the independent Republic of Uzbekistan, 1991.

Historical Places

Varahshansky Palace (V-IX in a). Located at the southern fortress wall fort west of the citadel. The building appeared in V. and lasted until the end of VIII or IX in the beginning. Buildings are very important surgery. During the zenith building is a well-organized structure.
The structure of the palace buildings were mostly three in a row of large ceremonial hall - east, west, and red. In the halls along the walls were wattle and daub sufy.

East Hall: (17h11 size, 5 m, height of not less than 6,5 m). Sufa in Honor (south) wall has expanded, forming a broad platform. On the south wall of the king's image reception, chaired by the governor, seated on a throne.
Red Room: (size 12h8, 5). Before there were special sufoy rise for light or flame. The walls are painted with scenes of hunting for prey and fantastic beasts.
West Hall: Dimensions: (7.25 x 6.6 m). From the west staterooms closed the extensive courtyard area 30x 9 meters. The territory of the courtyard was paved with baked bricks. The southern part of the courtyard was raised above the rest of his area, forming elevations, which led to stage 3. Walls surrounding the courtyard were richly decorated.
The main rooms of the palace, built on a high platform, towered over the rest of the buildings shakhristan. The palace was built over a thousand years ago.

Varakhsha striking in its significance, its size and beautiful frescos. However, it is virtually deserted place, rarely visited by residents, due to the fact that he is a few tens of kilometers from the city of Bukhara. In contrast, the Ark is located in the heart of the city. He is the last bastion of Emirs.

Arch - the citadel (VII century). This hill is the juxtaposition of the monumental buildings of the citadel of the city superimposed on each other for over 2000 years. The fortress overlooks the Registan Square symbol of greatness, the power of inaccessibility. Age Arch is not set, but in any case, fifteen hundred years ago, this fortress was the seat of the ruler of a vast and populous country. For centuries, Ark remained the main residence of the emir.

What is Ark now? This is a great earthy elevation. The plan is close to an irregular rectangle, somewhat elongated in the direction from west to east. South-eastern corner is slightly cut off. It is located in the middle of the western part of the modern city. The length of the wall area of ​​789.6 m, 3.96 ha. Height from the Registan Square 16do varies from 20m. Ceremonial entry into the Ark of Architecture is designed as two towers stolboobraznyh. The upper portion of the tower is connected galleries, over which the new premises with terraces. Entrance to the Arch of the collar is a ramp or a gradually rising path that leads through a long covered corridor to the Jamia Mosque. Ramp on both sides fenced massive stone railing, its length of about 20m, on one wall hung a large leather whip (symbol of authority of the Emir). From the gate to get into a dark corridor, along which there are facilities for water and a few cells for prisoners.
In the Arch is a large complex of buildings. The eastern half is now an archaeological monument. Here a mosque childuhtaron.

Today, here is the historical museum. The Arch is located opposite the only surviving monument to the Registan - Bolohauz mosque.
The mosque has a striking design - a painted ceiling aivan support numerous graceful columns. Next to a small khauz is a miniature minaret. Say, here to accomplish prayers go down the path of the Arch, carpeted himself Emir.

Madrassas Modar Khan (1566 - 1567 gg.) Built in honor of his mother Abdullakhan II.In
1968 Monument celebrated 400 years. In the annals of one of the court historians Abdullakhan says: "The components of its high vaults and lift ¬ shennye dome, the upper and lower rooms and the bases were made from the top down firmly." In the year of 400 anniversary of the monument, archaeologists have confirmed this: the building stands solidly and is currently .
The building is situated at an angle to the road, so that the exact symmetry ¬ symmetry in the ensemble there. The main facade of the madrasa Modar Khan ornate izraz ¬ particles of colored brick mosaic, which form various geometric patterns.Furnishings fill the tympanum of the facade of painted majolica tiles depicting the flower buds. All hu ¬ dozhestvennaya finish madrassas looks very modest.
Madrassas Abdullakhan (1588-1590gg.) Was built almost a quarter of a century after Modar Khan on the principle of "Kosh", which is two buildings were erected the "face" to each other. The basic principle of planning is the same: the premises are located around a courtyard. But the building itself is much more complicated: Mr. Lavna input has a high portal, which are flanked with two-storey wings with balconies and the entrance gallery on the top floor. Large sizes of the facade and set decoration means give it a colorful festive ¬ explicit form. In bright sunlight, well played by cool colors of majolica tiles ¬ O (blue, green and blue, and white).
In the decoration of the madrasah Abdullakhan, as in all ensembles ¬ Bleu in general sense of novelty. Instead of expensive color mosaic veneer produced by standard majolica tiles. Figure became more bright and beautiful, but lost, compared with a mosaic in a clearly ¬ particular, has become more blurred. Nevertheless, this does not spoil the appearance of the honey ¬ RECE, because majolica figure is perceived from afar as a colored spot.

With great skill to make the doors of madrasas, assembled from separate pieces of wood with a fine thread, without a single nail.
Abdullakhan lobby is a gallery with two aisles in the yard. The central dome rests on 16 of its arochkah forming a constructive framework, filled with polished brick. Ribs arochek simulate ¬ exist masonry, the joints are inserted majolica blue ribbons. On the dome patterns, consisting of five, eight and devyatikonechnyh stars. Pattern skufi dome is made from terracotta ribbons, laid on a background of majolica inserts blue.On a dark blue background clearly distinguished ¬ us to light openwork decoration.
Baland Mosque (XV century). - Translates as "high". His name must position on a high stone foundation. This is a typical pattern of quarterly guzarnyh mosques. Cubic volume with a flat false ceiling and on aivan carved wooden columns. The domination of the plane is compensated by a classically proportioned found parts: panel, above the alternating large and small panels, then a frieze. Panel mosque - a series of rectangular frames, each of which fills a mosaic pattern. The middle part of the wall mural decked lancet shape, filled with floral pattern, then narrow the field for the inscription on the frame, then figured nishoy over the border - they alternate with each other and separated by shape and pattern. Wooden ceiling, intricate woodwork, with the deepening of the stalactite in the middle of the starry figure. Hex tile panels - painted in gold with the fundamental. The mosque Baland means beautiful wall decorations are designed with exceptional brilliance. The region was believed that the mosque is exemplary.
Hanaka Hoxha Zayniddin (HVIv.). She also served khanaka and guzarnoy mosque and Mazar Shaikh Zainuddin. The builders of the mosque have taken into account particularly the location of her residential neighborhood. It was paved with stone slabs House that supplied the inhabitants of the quarter and the parishioners of drinking water. The southern facade of the building embodies the deepest niche - race open portico, as if absorb parishioners and carries them through the shady lanes in the twilight mosque.

Tomb of Sheikh stands in a special niche of the west facade facing on the street, which is unusual for the burial of the "holy". From the yard khanaka circled by two facades column ayvan. Slender columns support the graceful inlaid wooden ceiling of the sixteenth century.
The main dome room rectangular, extensive, high. Rich polychrome decoration adorns the hall from the bottom to the top of the dome. Figure (now red and blue, had a gilt or gold background) transfers only to a small extent the extraordinary effect that was achieved in the past use of technology "kundal. Excellent and abacus mosque, dissected into individual rectangular fields, filled with geometric shapes and elegant arochki with abundant color patterns. The architecture is traditional, and goes back to the earliest examples of folk architecture of the feudal era.

Minaret of Kalyan (1127g.), erected Karakhanids Arslanhanom. The new minaret was built entirely of brick. Building height 46.5 m, and all his fundamental part goes to a depth of 10m. The diameter of the cap reaches 9m. Powerful tapered thinning to the top of a massive pillar ends cylindrical lantern-rotunda at the crown of the stalactite cave. The lantern has 16 cross-arched openings, over which launched the crowning stalactite cornice. Here the guides will tell no one legend associated with this miraculous creation.
Kalyan Minaret, the bridge is connected to junction with the roof of the mosque Kalyan, where you can get inside the minaret and upstairs in the rotunda of the narrow and steep spiral staircase, brick, there were 105 steps. From the minaret of the rotunda a great view of Bukhara, the remnants of its walls.

At the foot of the minaret of Kalyan is a monumental architectural ensemble - Kalyan Mosque and madrasa Mir - Arab. Together with a small area lying between them they form a single complex, called Sing - Minar, ie, "foot minaret.
Kalyan Mosque (1514) one of the buildings that make up the magnificent architectural ensemble of Kalyan. The mosque is considered one of the oldest and second largest after the Bibi Khanum (Samarkand) in Asia. It was built on-site mosque CPs.
Main entrance - East, is decorated with big portals, decorated with mosaics. The portal is located on a hill and into the courtyard mosque are a few steps. With each step down the sails apart arches and overlooks the mikhrab niche facing towards Mecca. On each side of its towering two blue domes. Rectangular courtyard is framed by arcades, consisting of 288 domes. Base of the pillars is 208. The building occupies an area of ​​1 hectare. Accommodates about 10,000 worshipers.

Medrese Miri-Arab (early 20's. HUIv. - 1536g) is opposite the mosque Kalyan. For Madrassah Miri - Arab inherent in the traditional scheme of planning - chetyrehayvanny square yard, circled hujras two floors, two domed hall on the right and left. The main facade of the center is underlined portal, which are adjacent two-story loggia. The facade is flanked on both sides of the turrets guldasta.
In the center gurkhan (tomb) stands a wooden tombstone Khan Uybadully. In his head - the tomb of Miri - Araba.

The decoration of the madrasah found composing carved mosaics, multicolored stylized ornament. This facility is part of the ensemble of the mosque and minaret Kalyan. Currently, in the madrassas is acting religious school.

Mausoleum of Ismail Samani (X c). The monument has demonstrated the development of construction equipment and a high level of architectural art. The Mausoleum is a type of centric structure, whose walls are slightly skewed. The transition from the square walls of the dome carried by the angular Tromp - engineering design, known in Central Asia with doarabskih times. On top of the building at the Tromp is hollow gallery, opening on the outside of an arcade of small lancet windows. This gives the ease and flexibility of design and creates a kind of light inside the mausoleum.
All four facades of the mausoleum are the same. The central axes of the square of the mausoleum are large, gothic arches. Corners of the building from the outside flank the powerful three quarters brick columns. The walls inside and outside the processed patterned brick masonry, creating a rich texture of the cut-off walls, giving a lightness to the building.
Samanid Mausoleum, built at the turn of the ninth and tenth century according to legend, was built Ismail Samani, the founder of the Samanid state. Later, the mausoleum was the family tomb Samanid: it was buried himself Ishmael, and then his grandson Ismail.
The building is well preserved and is considered one of the masterpieces of world architecture.
Chashma Ayub (1380 -1384/85g.g.) It is unusual in a cone-shaped dome, the dome ceilings that give a special intimacy of small darkened rooms. All kind of mausoleum's mood detached contemplation: "Muslims do not die, but only transferred from one door to another."
Due to the fact that inside the building there is a source of water (well), the guide always tells the legend of the appearance of a well, to visit this place the biblical prophet Job (Ayub).
Now in this room is a water museum and a traveling exhibition of carpets.

Ulugbek Madrasah (1417). The only building remaining in Bukhara, the memory of the great astronomer Ulugbek. The creators of madrassas are the best architects of that time Nazhmetdin Ismail Bukhari and Isfahan. At his door was cut, "The quest for knowledge - the duty of every Muslim man and woman." The inscription over the door reads: "Above the circle of people knowledgeable in the book of wisdom, let them be every moment opened the door for God's blessing." Madrassas Ulugbek - a rectangular building with a courtyard and grand entrance, decorated with a high portal. Log forked cross corridors. At one end of the corridor was darshona (study room), in the other - the mosque. On the second floor - the library. The facade is a two-tiered arcade and has two wings. On both sides it is closed the tower - guldasta.Clear and the internal construction of the courtyard is framed by a two-storied galleries cells, where students lived. The walls and arches are decorated with a very modest, but tiles glitter just where you expect to see them. Madrassas ornamented astral nature, what is undoubtedly affected world Ulugbek as an astronomer. Quiet monastic life was spent in prayers - in mosques, lectures - in darshane, conversations in shady galleries.
Following the model of the madrasas began to build madrassas in Central Asia.

Madrassas Abdulazishana (HVIv.). Erected on a single axis with ulugbekovskim, much higher than it and scope and richness. This madrasa with chetyrehayvannym yard, with the portal entrance, corner guldasta and loggias, alcoves around the court and the facade. Ceiling covers painted in "kundal. To make the entrance portal singular harmony, he developed vertically, disrupting the harmony of proportions and the portal seems overly stretched, and the side wings are heavy. Stucco stalactites abound, but dry and monotone. The dimensions of the court over-stretched in length - lost the beauty aspect. But some of the interior decoration is surprising.
Chor Minor (1807) - a very picturesque and madrassas with peculiar chetyrehbashennoy building located on one of the side streets mahalinskih Mazarskih gate. It was built in the XIX century, rich Turkomans Khalifa Niyazkulom. In one of the towers was a surprisingly large library.

Taki Zargaron (HVIv.) (Jewelers). At the intersections of the shopping streets ofbazaars built the dome.
Taki Telpak Furrushon - a place selling hats.
Taki Sarrafon. Under this dome perform various transactions.
Magoki-Attari Mosque (presumably X-XII-HVIvv.) located close to Taki Sarrafon. Itshistory goes to the Sogdian ancient times, when this place was located Bazaar Moss.Here was a pagan temple, where with the approval of Islam mosque was built. It is believed that this is the mosque Maggoki-Attari. Substantial restructuring of itsaccounts at the XII century. when I was faced again the main facade of the mosque.

In the sixteenth century - is a small quarter mosque. In 1930, restorers released thatalmost 4,5 meters left in the ground ,provided an opportunity to survey the mainartistic attraction of the mosque . All the variety of architectural decoration - curlylaying of polished brick, carved bricks, forming various combinations, patterns, ornaments, terra-cotta plates, partially glazed terracotta - all organically combined in the design of the portal niche.

Ensemble Labi - House (XVII cent.) Consists of several disparate buildings.
Three buildings Kukeldash (1568-1569g), hunk Nadir Divan Begi (up to 1620g), Nodir Divan Begi (1620g.) constitute a complex in which the central organizing element is Labi - House. Labi-hauz - one of the retail space, so named by the name of a huge swimming pool, located in the middle of the square, built in 1620

Madrassas Kulba - Kukeldash (1568-1569g) - the oldest part of the complex Labi - House, has 160 cells and is considered the biggest in Bukhara. Placement in a madrasa impression of tightness, heaps of moves, steps, cubbyhole. The best thing that has kept madrasa architecture - design decoration of the two main halls of mosques and darshany and bathing under the floor passageways leading from the gates of madrassas in the yard, very nice inlaid wooden doors of different complex stellate pattern.

Nodir Divan Begi (up to 1620g), was originally built as a caravanserai, but in 1630 it was transformed into a madrassa. Interestingly good proportions of the facade and the remains of deer pictures, fantastic birds in timbrels arches. Yet Nadvornaya of madrassas several templates.

Today in the courtyard of tourist venue for concerts of masters of Bukhara, fashion show, made exclusively from natural fabrics in Uzbekistan, which can be purchased at the end of the demonstration. Often, employees of tour agencies organize at this place, and dinner cuisine.

Mausoleum Seyfeddin Boharzi (XIV - HVIvv.). Mausoleum built up over the burial of the famous Central Asian mystic. In the fourteenth century were built the main rooms and in the XV - HVIvv. - The entrance portal. The Mausoleum has an impressive form and at the same time is attractive for its simplicity and clarity. The building has a complex plan - Crypt-gurkhan room, commemorations - zierathana. Above them two domes - large and small. The main entrance is highlighted with a three-quarter peshtak strong towers at the corners. No decoration no outside or inside. Only rich in the decorative element on - a luxury wooden tomb of the fourteenth century, set in gurkhan.
Mausoleum of Buyan Quli Khan (ok.1358 city) Buyan Quli was the Mongol khan, who ruled in Central Asia. Mausoleum of two-chamber, moreover, circled a hidden corridor.

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