Day Tour in Tashkent

Day Tour in Tashkent

Tashkent, Urgench, Khiva

Tashkent, Urgench, Khiva

Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand

Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand

ART & CRAFTS IN MODERN UZBEKISTAN

ART & CRAFTS IN MODERN UZBEKISTAN
 * KOKAND * RISHTAN * FERGANA * MARGILAN *  2 DAYS / 1 NIGHT


Samarkand Day Tour

Samarkand Day Tour

LEGENDARY CAPITALS OF CENTRAL ASIA

LEGENDARY CAPITALS OF CENTRAL ASIA 
 * BUKHARA *  SHAKHRISABZ * SAMARKAND *  5 DAYS / 4 NIGHTS

 

Tour in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan 3

Tour in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan 3Tashkent, Khiva, Bukhara, Samarkand, Bishkek, Issyk-Kul, Karakol, Tamga
13 day

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 2

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 2Tashkent, Khiva, Bukhara, Samarkand, Fergana, Rishtan, Margilan, Osh, Bishkek, Issyk-Kul
15 days

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 1

Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tour 1Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand, Bishkek, Son-Kul, Issyk-Kul
12 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 1

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 1Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Merv, Ashgabat, Dashoguz, Kunya-Urgench, Khiva, Urgench
11 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 2

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 2Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Gonur (Margush), Merv, Ashgabat, Kunya-Urgench, Khiva
12 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 3

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 3Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Turkmenabad, Koytendag, Kuguitang, Merv, Ashgabat, Gas crater, Kunya-Urgench, Khiva
14 days

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 4

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tour 4Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Mary, Merv, Ashgabat, Darvaza, Dashoguz, Khiva
12 days

FERGANA VALLEY

FERGANA VALLEY
Ferghana (State Davan in Chinese) in the first century BC - The first century AD It was a rich agricultural country with a highly developed economy, agriculture and handicrafts, a significant number of cities that konstantiruet Chinese diplomat and intelligence officer Chang Jiang in his visit to this area in 128 BC Davan was headed by the governor (The names of some of them: Moza, Chan-fyn), a major role in the government playing board stareyshin.On discretion succeeds a old and appointed new governors. The population, according to Zhang Jian, numbered several hundred.Cities and towns in Davan was 70.

Significant role in the economy engaged in agriculture, especially alfalfa breeding, viticulture and winemaking. Wine is made in large quantities and stored for a long time without spoiling. Widely developed in Davan rice and wheat. Much attention was given to a specialized horse-breeding, especially the cultivation of "the glorious Argamakov," "sweating blood, allegedly" took place on the breed and the "heavenly horses" that led to the Sino-war davanskoy 104-102 years. BC Subsequently, between the two countries established diplomatic relations. Ferghana valley stretches to the tectonic depression of the Tien Shan mountains in the middle reaches of the Syr-Darya River at an altitude of 300-1000 meters. Fergana Valley - a unique corner of Central Asia. There are all types of landscape.

FERGANA
Fergana city is located in the south of the Fergana Valley.
The story begins in 1877. After the collapse of the Kokand Khanate was formed Fergana province. The new administrative center was Margelan, located 12 kilometers from the old Marghelan. The first governor-general was appointed MD Skobelev. The main building of the city was a military fortress, which occupied a large area. From it have been laid along the radius of three new streets. Particular attention was paid to landscaping. At the heart of the city was divided into a large park. The first architectural sights of the city became the Governor House (now the building is a dramatic theater), House Assistant Governor (former 2nd City Hospital) Military Meeting (Officers'), Men's Gymnasium (the administrative building of the university). In 1907 the town was renamed Skobelev, and from 1924 called Ferghana. The territory of the city - 70 sq km, population - 320 thousand people. Located on an altitude of 580 meters above the Fergana morya.V no ancient architecture and historical monuments, but its environs are famous for unique beautiful places. To the south of the city in the valley Shahimardansaya, on the northern slope of Alay Range is the mountain resort "Hamzaabad." Up the valley of the Cox is Blue Lake, invariably attracts tourists.
In the foothills of the Alai Range in the heart of the valley Altyaryksaya, drowned in the greenery of gardens and vineyards, lies a village Chimion, known for its healing miniralnymi sources. Balneological resort "Chimion" - the largest health center in Central Asia

Kokand
Kokand city, located in the western part of the Ferghana Valley, is one of the ancient cities of Uzbekistan.
Kokand is 100 km from the city of Fergana, at an altitude of 405 meters above sea level. The territory is 65 square kilometers Population of over 180 thousand people.
Accurate information about who and when was the Kokand city was founded, no.However, we know that in the first century AD this place was a few villages, which gradually expands, to form a city. Important in the development of the city was the Great Silk Road. A large number of caravanserai was built for the merchants to India and China.
The first written evidence of the city Hukande, Havokande (old name of the city) are found in the annals of the tenth century. In the thirteenth century, was destroyed by the Mongols. Modern Kokand was developed from the fort, built in 1732 and became in 1740 the capital of the Kokand Khanate. Khanate reached its power in the first half of the X! The tenth century, whose territory includes most of present-day Uzbekistan chas, part of southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and China. It was a big, powerful state. During its existence in the Khanate had 29 governors. At this time the city had more than 35 madrassas, mosques, about 300, and he became the religious center of the Fergana Valley.
In 1842, Nasrullah Khan of Bukhara city wins. Of all the rulers of Kokand most vivid mark in the history of the last khan Khudoyar left. V1845 in the age of 12 he became governor of the state. He ruled until 1876 before joining the Khanate of Tsarist Russia.During the reign of four he lost his throne and his back to win. In his era were a lot of work for the improvement of the city - built Husar, mosques, madrassas. The most significant building is the Palace of the time the incumbent.
Khudoyarkhan Palace (1871 - 1873). In Kokand is well preserved, "Urda", built Hudoyarhanom. This building is also called "Palace Khudoyarkhan." Planners and architects of the palace called the World Ubaidulla. In the construction of the palace were not only masters of Kokand, Konibodom, Chust, Namangan, Uratyube, but the master Kashgarians.
The total area of ​​4 hectares of the palace, his foundation raised by 3 meters. For this reason, to enter the main gate on the east side was built a special road - the ramp.
At the top of darvozahony Arab lettering: "Great Khudoyarkhan Said Muhammad." In the original length of the palace was 138 meters, width - 65 meters. The palace consisted of 7 palaces and 119 rooms. At the time, "Urda" was surrounded by the inner and outer fences. Until now, the fences have not been preserved, with only two of the court and 19 rooms. The building facade has a length of 70 meters and literally dazzles visitors variegated colors, rich ornaments: geometric designs, arabesques and floral motifs. This building is embodied traditional skills of artisans - masters of applied art from the Fergana Valley.

Reba ganch, paintings, excerpts from the Koran on the edges of blue ceramic tiles - all this can be seen in the decoration of the palace Khudoyarkhan.
In the eastern part of the palace is located a large mosque (100m x 40m), once in regards to madrassas.

Now here is the Kokand Regional Studies Museum, introduces visitors to the province's history and the palace.
Cemetery Kokand khans - a special kind of attraction, where the rulers of the rest of Kokand, famous personalities of the city.
The Shrine Dakhma-and-Shakhon (1825g.) Kokand Khans tomb was built in the era of Umarkhan. The ensemble consists of three parts: a domed room with a portal, mosques, cemeteries and family aivan .. The Shrine is surrounded by a fence, there are avian read prayers and a few graves, one of which is buried Umarkhan. The facade of the mausoleum Umarkhan (1809 -1822 gg.), The columns of the mosque summer decor reminiscent of paintings of the mosque "Bolohaus" in Bukhara.Entrance doors tomb carved in wood, with excerpts from the Koran in Arabic, and samples of poetry Umarkhan.
The area of ​​the tomb is 9.4 x 11 7 meters. In 1971 it was restored architectural craftsmen.
Mausoleum Modori Khan (1825) was built for the mother of the Kokand ruler Umarkhan, which rests under a blue dome. This monument is one of the interesting examples of Muslim architecture.
Mosque Zhomi (1800g.) was built during the reign of Umarkhan (1809-1822 year).Here, in the main Friday prayer recited. It was an extended, closed on three sides with avian honakoy (indoors), in the center. The area of ​​the mosque is aivan 97.5 x 25, 5 meters, which is held by 98 wooden columns. These columns are made of solid wood, for what they are called "stone trees". Front of the mosque is a minaret with a smooth circular masonry brick and shestiarochnym, lantern, topped with a faceted dome. Its height is 22 meters. Daily 5 times in the same time, from a height of minarets, the citizens were called to prayer.
Madrasah Norbutabi (1799) was built on an area Chorsu, with the participation of Bukhara builder and carver ganch Usto Kasymdzhana. Despite the one-storey building is different monumentality. In the 19th century madrasah was the largest center of expertise in Kokand. There are many academic and residential rooms for students (huzhra). Area madrassas - 52h72 meters. In the construction of the madrasa was used mainly burnt brick. Now in this building is a mosque Zhomi. After Uzbekistan gained its independence, this newly opened madrasas and at the moment over 80 students enrolled.
Madrasah Emir (XVIII cent.). Constructed in strict accordance to the style of the buildings of this type. The facade of buildings is 21 meters wide and 30 feet long, 16-18 meters yard madrassas, which are huzhry - classrooms. The mosque and the training room and topped with blue domes are particularly elegant. The mosque is a valid and open to both believers and visitors.

Margilan
The city is located 12 km from the regional center and is one of the oldest cities in the Fergana Valley. The territory of the city - 50 square meters. and a population over 165 thousand people. Margelan situated at an altitude of 475 meters above sea level.Located 15 km from Fergana and Kokand.
The first information about the city are the ninth and tenth vv.i mentioned in the Arab chronicles. During the reign of Karakhanids was the capital of the Fergana Valley (999-1213 gg.). Later the town became known as the city of silk, as is made different kinds of silk fabrics, especially tsenivshiesya in the East. Zahreddin Muhemad Beaubourg in his work "Beaubourg-nome 'noted that the city is famous for its orchards, sweet dried apricots and pomegranates.
The city's name linked with the dish of chicken and bread, which, allegedly, the locals were treated to Alexander of Macedon. The dish was called "Murginon."
Monuments of the Islamic period have been preserved in Margilan to the late nineteenth century. This is a mosque and madrasah Chakar Said Ahmad Khoja (nineteenth century).. The main link is the mosque complex, consisting of a hall and aivan with painted ceilings. The nature of different decor. The ceiling is divided by the evil in broad green and red bands, which are painted floral ornament - colors, curly stems.

Andijan
Andijan - one of the oldest towns at the crossroads of the Silk Road, located in the southeastern part of the Ferghana Valley on the river Andijan-Say. The city is surrounded by hills and high mountains. There are various legends, interpreting the city name on the site of a caravanserai. Historians give a more prosaic explanation: the city name comes from the Uzbek clan, "Andy." From time immemorial there have developed crafts and agriculture. Already in the first century of Andijan was part of the Kushan Empire. During the conquest of the Arabs, he was known as a major shopping center, which lies on the Silk Road. In the ninth and tenth centuries. - Included in the state of Samanids. In the XIV century, during the reign of Amir Temur has experienced a rapid rise in all sectors. In the XV century in the chronicles of the city referred to as "Andigan." At this time, the governor of Andijan became a great statesman, scientist, poet, historian, author of the famous book "The Babur-name" - Muhammad Zahreddin Beaubourg, who later was the founder of the great Mughal Empire in India. By this time the center of the city was walled. In the XVI century it was conquered by the result of the invasion later became part of the Kokand Khanate.
V1902, the Andijan suffered a major earthquake, after which destroyed the old monuments. Monuments of cultural heritage is a complex Jami, covers an area of ​​1.5 hectares, which includes a madrasa, a mosque and minaret.
Jami madrassah (1883-1890gg.). The building of the XIX century attracted the attention of an impressive external appearance and large size. It has a symmetrical composition of space-planning with the main facade, facing east, in the center of which stands a traditional portal with lancet Fergana niche, arched galleries and two decorative towers with decorative lanterns. In the corners of the building - Dome classrooms. And between them, two floors hujras. The smooth wall of the first floor is cut with rectangular barred windows. Hujr second floor emphasizes the rhythm of the lancet arched niches with roof-terrace, which gives the facade of formality.
The building in the plan was U-shaped, its northern and southern wings were not preserved. System overlaps classrooms are angled arches, through which passes into the octagon chetverik and further into the cylindrical drum, carrying the dome.
Decorative elements are geometric lattices - pandjara. An outstanding example of applied art of the Ferghana Valley is carving wooden gate portal-dome darvazahony representing deep trehplanny vegetable drawing with geometric borders. Portal and the dome is decorated with blue and tszraztsy blue. In contrast to the warm tone of the brick facades of cool white interiors are distinguished stucco plaster.

Jami Mosque - the largest in the Fergana Valley (26 prletov on the main façade) - located in the western part of the complex. Its plan, typical for this region, is a symmetrical composition of rectangular and triangular room with multi-column aivan painted ceiling.

The same complex also includes the highest minaret in Fergana. Its height is 32 meters. It was built of brick on an octagonal base, each face of which has arched niches, decorated with ornamental medallions with epigraphic filling. Around the brick pillars on the vertical axis minaret winds spiral staircase. Ends minaret dome lamp with lancet openings. In the middle of the barrel is lined geometric patterned brickwork at the top and made a ring of blue tiles and blue.
At 30 kilometers from the ancient city of Andijan is located Ershi - the capital of the ancient state of Davan, now Mingtepa mound.

Namangan
Namangan originated in 1610 on the spot settlement Namangankan (Salt mine). It was located near a small salt lake. In 1757, the Namangan province became a center of administration.
At the end of H1H the early twentieth century it was the second most populous city. At this time, there are built places of worship - madrassas Mullah Kirghiz, the Mausoleum of Khoja Amin
Madrassas Mullah-Kirghiz was built in the city center. In terms of this building is wrong pentahedron, obstroenny hudjras. This form was dictated by the conditions of the land. The symmetry of the main facade with portal-domed entrance and two-story wings hujras violate domed mosque and the volume darshony built adjacent. In the courtyard you can see the light minaret.
The decoration of the portal used mosaic of colored tiles of blue, green, yellow and white flowers. A wide frieze mosques and monumental inscriptions darshony has posted in relief of burnt bricks. Madrasah is not a traditional building, and individual planning decisions.

On the same street as madrassas Mullah Kirghiz is a mosque Ota Valihon tour.
It was built in the early dvadtstsatogo century. Dome composition of the building is rectangular in plan (27 x 19.6 m), a small entrance portal to the towers. The central hall is blocked by a large ribbed dome. Exterior brickwork gives the building integrity.
Memorial monument of architecture Amin Khoja Cabri refers to the eighteenth century. There is a memorial mosque, revealed on 4 sides., To the south are buried.Later the mosque was built aivan, honako and madrassas, which are poorly preserved.
Far from Namangan are the ruins of ancient city Aksikent. Archaeological studies in recent years have shown that Aksikent had citadel and massive walls. The area of ​​greater than 30 hectares, the center has been separated from the wall of the craft, and the city is protected by a deep ditch. Prior to the XIII century was the capital of Aksikent Fergana Valley. The city was destroyed by the Mongols. In the XVII century, after the earthquake the inhabitants moved to the city of Namangan.


Shakhimardan
Shakhimardan - one of the most beautiful places in Uzbekistan. The city is located 55 km. To the south of Fergana and is located at an altitude of 1,500 meters above sea level, among the mountains of the Alai Range. Shakhimardan on both sides by mountain rivers Ok-su-su and Kok, which are combined into one river - Shakhimardan-sai. It is interesting that on the road from Ferghana to seven times to cross the river Shakhimardan-say, to get to the village.
In the 1930s, as a result of exchange of territory between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan became part of Shakhimardan, a kind of a small island.

Shakhimardan history is largely associated with the name of Hazrat Ali, the fourth caliph, the Prophet Muhammad's son-in. There is a theory that during the stay of Hazrat Ali in Central Asia, he visited the village of Shakhimardan, and one of the possible seven of his grave is located in the village, which is practically impossible to prove or deny. Translated from the Persian "Shakhimardan" means "Lord of the people" that corresponds with the name of Hazrat Ali.
In the 20s there was at the center of Shakhimardan mosque and the mausoleum of Hazrat Ali, where the faithful come to pray. But in an era of persecution of religion, the Soviet authorities demolished the mausoleum of Ali. It was only after Uzbekistan gained independence in 1993 the mausoleum of Hazrat Ali was re-built in the same place and has kept its outer form.
Shakhimardan some time bore the name Hamzaabad, in honor of the poet and the founder of the Uzbek drama Hamza Hakim-zade Niyazi. In the 60 years in his honor was built museum and mausoleum Hamza.
Seven kilometers to the south-east of the lake is Shakhimardan Kulikubbon or Blue Lake. It was formed after a series of earthquakes in 1766. The lake lies at an altitude of 1724 meters above sea level. Length of 170 meters, width - 60 meters, depth - from 5 to 10 meters. In summer the water temperature rises to 10 to 15 degrees Celsius. The lake is two kilometers lift. This piece of nature is the most favorite for locals and tourists alike.

Shahrizabs

Kashkadarya

Kashkadarya located in southern Uzbekistan. Karshi Steppe covers a large part of which is bounded by the East foothills of Hissar and Zarafshan.

River Kashkadarya with numerous tributaries irrigates the region.  The city of Karshi - administrative center was rebuilt in the early 14 th century.  near the ruins of an earlier capital cities of the oasis on the ancient caravan route from Samarkand and Bukhara to Afghanistan and India. Population is 200.9 thousand people.
Reserve Kizil - Sai, created in 1975, is located on the southwestern slopes of the Hissar Mountains. Impenetrable thickets on the slopes of the mountains are a haven for

Picturesque tract overgrown with apricot trees, walnut groves, almond groves, juniper and everlasting Amankutan plane trees, is located in a sprawling near the mountain village of the same name .. Outside the windows the bus that rush sheer stone walls, the outspread sails far down the picturesque panorama of the valley. Zarafshanskiy mountains are beautiful in all seasons. In the spring they blaze with scarlet tulips, summer carpeted raznotsvetya, Autumn gold emerald pines among the domes and turrets of the birches hazels, winter dazzling when embedded in snow-white blanket.

Pass Tahtakaracha, serpentine mountain road, Zarafshanskiy Ridge, Kitab-Shakhrisabz Basin. Kitab-Shakhrisabz Basin - the most fertile place in the pool Kashkadarya. Here, near the Uzbek tract is located, is world-renowned Kitab latitude station named. Ulugbek. Such stations in the world is only five. The main concern of astronomers station - follow the movement of the poles of the earth and to study this phenomenon. The observatory, laboratory and residential buildings stand in the shady gardens and vineyards.
Shakhrisyabz

Shakhrisabz, which translates as "Green City". He really immersed in the greenery of gardens and vineyards.
Shakhrisyabz located at an altitude of 650 m above sea level, approximately 39 ° north latitude.
Climate - continental, average temperature in the area in January is 0 - 8 °, in July +28 °. Number of days with temperatures below +5 ° is only 75 and above +5 ° -290 days.The amount of rainfall per year on average 545 mm, snowy days - 22.
Distance to the capital Tashkent Shahrisabza 410 km from the regional center Kashkadarya Karshi-100, from Samarkand - 80 km.

Through Shakhrisabz passes starting in Tashkent International Highway - Big Uzbek tract. Along this path in the XIII century. he traveled the Italian traveler Marco Polo.

Is full of charm and enchantment road from Samarkand to Shakhrisabz. Highway passes through the mountain pass in Tahtakaracha Zarafshan range.

In Uzbekistan, many cities that have arisen before modern letoschislsnnya. Over the centuries, enjoyed wide renown centers of ancient eastern civilization, Samarkand, Bukhara, Termez and others. Rightful place in history and set aside Shahrsabzu that has arisen, in the opinion of Academician V. Bartold, during the Greco-Bactrian culture (III-II cent. Before. Er.). In the historical sources he referred to as the cache. On the ancient history of the city show multimeter layers excavated by archaeologists fort.Here are found pottery and terracotta, relating to the first centuries of Mr.. er. The city experienced trekking the Persian kings Darius and Cyrus, the troops of Alexander of Macedon. In VIII. city ​​was one of the main centers of the uprising against the Arabs.More than 25 years lasted uprising led by Mukai.

The first settlements near Shahrisabz formed in the VIII-VII centuries. BC
Shakhrisabz-birthplace of Tamerlane. He was born in 1336 in peri-urban village of Khoja Ilgar. Here, Timur spent his childhood and teenage years. Since the beginning of his ruling, he gathered a lot of Shakhrisabz craftsmen, whose hands were raised and kept laid palaces, mosques and mausoleums. In his decree, in the XIV century.Shakhrisyabz was surrounded by a new fortified wall and became not only trade and craft center, but also a city of science and culture.

In Kesh stopped before going through the Spanish embassy Zarafshanskiy range bound for Samarkand to the court of Tamerlane. It was more than five hundred years ago. Ambassador Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo wrote about the then Shakhrisabz: "... The city was surrounded by an earthen rampart and a deep ditch, and at the entrances were drawbridges.
In an era of Timur and the Timurid city became one of the cultural centers of the East.Here there were great scholars and poets of Navoi, Jami. Here lived Ulugbek.

Monuments of ancient architecture
Ak-Saray Palace (1379 - 1404 gg.). Timur built it on a bare field, drive away 50,000 captives of architects and craftsmen from all corners of their empire: from Khorezm, Iran, Iraq and North India. As conceived by Bishop structure was to be unsurpassed in its greatness. So it was. The portal of the Palace was inscribed - "If you want to know about our power - look at our buildings."

Spanish ambassador Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo, wrote in 1404: "... messengers took to watch a large palace, which was built on the orders of the king, saying that for twenty years, it worked a lot of masters. In this palace was very long and very high entrance portal, and now at the entrance on the right and left hands were brick arches, covered with tiles painted by different stains. Show reception room, constructing a square, its walls painted in gold and azure and finished with polished tiles and the ceiling is all gold-plated, this envoys led to the upper floor, as the whole house was razzolochen, and it showed them as offices and apartments that would be very long story: they finish was gold, azure and other different colors amazing work, and even in Paris, where there are skilled craftsmen, this work would be considered very beautiful. "

One of the wonders of the palace was arranged on the roof of House, from which flowed a picturesque cascade jets. Water in the House came to lead the chute with a mountain pass Tahtakaracha. Arch entrance portal of Ak-Saray, collapsed 200 years ago, was the largest in Central Asia. The span of the portal is 22.5 m. From this majestic building have been preserved two disparate pylon. The height of the pylons, even in the current disastrous state reaches 38 m. The continuing great work on the restoration and strengthening of piers portal of the palace. Mosaic filigree work, assembled into a complex range of colors, striking bright intricate patterns and murals. Surviving part of the pylons and monumental arches, affects the size - height 18-storey building and a width of about 20 meters.

A later ruler, Emir of Bukhara, Abdullah Khan, the second, in 1570, wanting to erase the memory of his famous predecessor, however hard they tried, could not destroy the palace until the end. Three centuries later the Red Army and set on top of the Ak-shed two machine guns, pouring lead local forces kurbashi. Now, the palace was restored to the extent possible.

Mausoleum of Jehangir (1376 - 1379gg.). Mausoleum stands in the southeastern part of town. It was built for sudden death in Samarkand, twenty-two beloved eldest son of Timur - Jehangir. Timur fell into such grief that "his heart was closed for compassion for 30 years." The body of the prince was transported to the city of ancestors, which for him three years later was elevated to the mausoleum. Entrance of the mausoleum is preceded zierathona.

The construction of the mausoleum gracefully and elegantly. It is a square prism topped with a conical dome. Noteworthy special trehkupolnaya construction of the mausoleum floor - inside a decorative canopy above it the average discharge and the outer conical dome of the multifaceted drum. This design is traditional for the architecture of Khorezm, whence Maverannahr were taken architects and craftsmen - SPE then erected mausoleum. It is used in ornamental decoration calculations glazed brick with majolica and mosaic inlays. Mausoleum of Jehangir belonged to the dynastic shrine now destroyed, the building is on the testimony of the historian Sherefetdina Ali Iezdi was "extremely high".

The memorial complex Dorussiadat (Dorus - Saodat) (1394) began construction of a grand, which translated means "seat of power," which was intended for the disposal of Timur and all its descendants. The main facade has been allocated a powerful portal with towers at the corners. The central entrance led into the courtyard, equipped premises, the contours of which have survived in part. Fully extant only left stable portal that vkompanovan Jehangir Mausoleum. Under it lies the burial crypt at other sites revealed three crypt, they probably had more. Chief among them is opposite the entrance to the courtyard, the tomb was located above it - gurhona on both sides of which two premises. Another gurhona placed symmetrically mausoleum of Jehangir in the right abutment of the portal - apparently zde was buried a second son Timur - Umarsheyh, who died in 1394 at the siege of a Kurdish fortress and brought to Shakhrisabz from Shiraz.

From the magnificent tomb built by Timur preserved underground tomb with a stone sarcophagus. Cruciform chamber was completely lined with slabs of white marble-like limestone. On the walls of the office of arched niches stretches solid ribbon cutting with Koranic inscriptions. Prayers are inscribed in medallions in the vaults.Everything here is consistent with the place of the last ruler of calm: the stone sarcophagus, and inscriptions about leaving mortal world into eternity, but fate decreed otherwise. On the stove, stone tombs embossed rectangular field for an epitaph Timur. No tomb had remained for centuries does not cover, as Timur was buried in Samarkand Gur Emir mausoleum.
Madrassas Doruttilyavat (House thinking, contemplation). Formation of the memorial has been associated with the name of the judge Shamsiddin Kul. Coming from a family of the potter, has an approximate Kulyal father Timur Taragay was his peer - mentor. His tomb is the earliest construction. Sheikh died in 1370, and his tomb was surrounded by great reverence and worship.

From the south, was attached mausoleum, perhaps descendants of Ulugbek called Gumbazi Seyidon (dome Seyidov) - is a small building captivating elegance of proportions and perfectly executed the entrance, covered with deep, in three planes, carved with floral and vegetal and epigraphic ornaments.

The ensemble of madrasahs Doruttilyavat was completed during the reign of the grandson of Tamerlane, the famous astronomer Ulugbek.
Mosque Kok Gumbaz (1435) (blue dome). Was built on the foundations of an earlier building pre-Mongolian period with a similar layout. Located on a single axis with the mausoleum Kul she became the cathedral mosque of the city. Go to the mosque once adjoined the summer the gallery from which preserved the base of square piers supporting the arches. The inscription on the portal indicates that the mosque was built by Ulugbek on behalf of his father, Shah Rukh.

From the majestic sanctuary remained a central dome construction. The diameter of the dome - 46 meters, it is larger than the diameter of the dome in the Bibi Khanum.Square hall topped spheroconical dome resting on shestnadtsatigrannik. In the corners of the massive walls built four spiral staircases. On the part of the outer dome read by the remnants of Koranic texts, laid brick mosaics majolica in the frame.

In 1438 the south wall of the mausoleum Shamsiddin Kul Ulugbek builds makbarat (vault) for the relatives and descendants.
Texts on marble tombstones XV-XVII centuries., Transferred here from a nearby cemetery, mention the names of Termez seyyids. This gave later the name of the mausoleum Gumbazi-Seyidan (Dome Seyidov).
Makbarat graceful and elegant. The walls and dome of the fragments of ornamental painting, made of bright blue paint on a pure white field.

Indoor market Chorsu (XV cent.) Five-domed brick building stands at the center of Shakhrisabz. This is a traditional indoor market was built at the intersection of two main streets of the ancient city.

Shakhrisyabz - the third city in Uzbekistan after the Samarkand and Bukhara, which survived a similar structure. Inside the cross-shaped building housed numerous shops and stalls. In the center stands a vast and tall dome. With four sides of the central dome above passages, surging four cupola.

Urban Bath (XV century).. Is one of the oldest landmarks of the city. Built in the XV century. It works so far. Bath heated by a network of canals, laid under her gender.The building is built of baked brick and tile overlapped circular domes. Floors and marble sufy.

In the city there are interesting buildings and a later time. Among them honako Malik Ajdar with a majestic dome, quarter mosque Kazi, Husar, having an interesting summer aivan on wooden pillars and other structures. Shakhrisabz monuments of ancient architecture - evidence of the greatness of the people, whose creative genius was erected the famous portals, arches, domes, whose spiritualization inspired craftsmen, decorated the building fanciful murals and intricate ornamentation.

Sarmysh

In Shahrisabz being great works but also the reconstruction and restoration of monuments of material culture. This created an independent scientific restoration workshops, where the work of architects, designers, builders, skilled carvers and ganch. and other masters of applied art. Care of the numerous creative team - to give the pristine appearance of the monuments of medieval architecture, save for the ages of creation of the ancient masters.
Modern Shakhrisabz today is a small town with its production. Cotton factory, the oldest enterprise of the city. In recent years the plant has undergone another renovation. Significantly increased its capacity. The company produces cotton fiber, lint, seed.

Wide popularity enjoyed wine production plant. At the international competition vintage wines "Shirin" and "Vassarga were awarded gold medals, and the wine Cabernet-liqueur" - silver medal. Highly profitable enterprise is equipped with automatic lines, modern equipment.

Especially popular in the country and far beyond use products of local industry.Shakhrisyabz has long been famous masters of carpet weaving and fine embroidery.Handicraft Artel folk crafts in 1928 unite in the shops of the new art factory "Hood zhum. The factory has constantly increased production, equipped with mechanisms that improve the technological processes. The art of carpet weaving and embroidery training young workers skilled hereditary masters. Famous Shakhrisabz skullcaps are sold in stores not only in our country, but countries in all continents. At the last the last decade the international exhibitions in Montreal, Japan, skullcaps and embroidery factory Hood zhum "were awarded gold medals. The assortment of goods of the famous factory colorful national costumes, carpets, Suzanne, dresses, shawls, bags and other products.

Large enterprise is a cannery. On automatic lines of the plant each year go a variety of canned goods. Here is the tomato paste, tomato juice, stewed fruit, jam, jam, marmalade, sauces, marinades and other products.
One of the most powerful enterprises in the city - the union "Uzselhoztehnika. This is the oldest company in Shakhrisabz. It emerged in 1930 as the MTS. At that time the station has several tractors of foreign brands "Cater Piller" and "Fordson". Now there are hundreds of domestic high-performance tractors, earthmoving machines and other equipment. Here in the single family employs representatives of eleven nations.The territory of the enterprise covers an area of ​​13 hectares. And everywhere in this vast area divided into shady gardens.

Becoming a modern city, Shakhrisabz not lost its significance as an interesting center of medieval architectural monuments. Urban construction and reconstruction of streets and squares being here so as not to damage the monuments of ancient architecture. Town planners skillfully inscribe the contours of ancient structures in the new look of the city.

Khiva

Khiva

      According to legend, an old man dying of thirst in the desert, hit a stick and saw a place strike a well of water. Surprised, he exclaimed, "Hey Wah," and founded the town near the well.
Long history of Khiva is inextricably linked with the fate of Khorezm. Period of expansion when the Khorezm became the head of the powerful state formations, interspersed with heavy falls, when its towns and villages were dying from the devastating invasions.
Khiva is located on the western Khorezm region, at an altitude of about 100 m above sea level. Near start boundless expanse of the great desert of Kyzyl-Kum. City fed by the waters channel Pahlavan.
                           
        It is noteworthy that in the XIX-early XX centuries. City in final form emerged in the traditional plan of the flat: rectangle, stretched from north to south, split crosswise along the axes of the main streets. Its dimensions - 650h400 m - are in the ratio of the proportions of the "golden section", the favorite architect of all countries in the world. The size of settlements studied by archaeologists indicate that if their builders possessed the basics of applied geometry.
      Kun-Arc is located at the western gate of the city. This is the first stronghold, which has repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt again in the old place,
Outside of the rectangular core of Khiva has grown over the centuries suburb - rabad, which in the middle of the XIX century. too, was surrounded by walls. So in Khiva on the current two cities: internal - Ichon-Kala and external - Dishan feces. The highest flowering of architecture reached Khiva in the XIX century. When unfolded construction in connection with the expansion and consolidation of Khiva, khanate.
The most interesting thing in Khiva - are preserved like nowhere structure of the city and place it in each type of building. There appears to feel entirely unified ensemble architectural environment of eastern cities.
Simplicity and expressiveness of the ensembles of Khiva - the result of high culture, development of professional skills of their authors. The contrasting combination of opposites: the sculptural form of domes, vertical flat roofs and the minarets of the background development of residential areas, sunlit surface of the deaf walls and deep dips shaded niche portals and aivans, large scale public buildings and small - mass housing - enhances the expressiveness of the whole, emphasizing each other.

Walls and gates of the city. The first thing that differentiates from other cities of Khiva - city walls Ichon-Qala, rare surviving example of a medieval fortifications. The basis of their elevated above the level of Dishan Kala, possibly due to the natural topography (after all, according to legend the city was founded on sandy hill). The walls are built of adobe blocks. Outside every 30 m favor massive rounded and faceted defensive towers. On top of the wall and towers encircling notched parapet with loopholes for firing at the attackers siege.
The system of defensive trenches were filled with water at the foot of the walls, and trails that are now visible from the south. From the north and west in their place now laid asphalt streets. The entire defense system was to give the impression of inaccessibility and awesome power.
The system also included the defense of Khiva and the gates are adapted to perform a watchdog of the city. This is a very impressively reflected in their appearance: on the sides of the arched passage constructed powerful tower above the gate passes patrol and shooting gallery. Roadway blocked or vault, or if the travel is long, domes, and on either side of the map has dome the same room where the guard, customs, courts, and sometimes prison.
  Gates in the cities of the East was given great importance, as well as entrances to the public and residential buildings: their impressive appearance was supposed to express the greatness and dignity of the city, building owner.

        Over time, the gates of Khiva lost their defensive function and became the elements of urban redevelopment.
        The gate outside the city, Dishan kala, preserved only if coming from the east to Khiva Coy darvaza and north - Kosh-Darwaza (double gate). They were built in the early XX century. The originality of their compositions in the double (kosh) chetyrehkupolnom travel, overlooking the road to Urgench. This structure is expressed on the facades of the gate. Passages flanked by towers and crowned on top of the sentinel arcature, elegantly decorated with brick tiles. On both sides of the passages - office space.
In a rectangle of walls in the inner city, Ichon-Qala, entered four gates, which approached the main highway. West Gate - Ata-Darwaza - have not survived, but in the 1970's. have been fully restored by documentary photographs of XIX century., by analogy with surviving gate from the south and north Ichon-Qala, which have a similar structure.                                                 
 
Khiva minarets
  In creating a unique silhouette Khiva exclusive role belongs to the minarets - ascending into the sky vertical lines mark the places of the former community centers.Their rhythm in Khiva counts major urban development module: minarets follow through Dishan Kalou and Ichon-Kala intervals exactly 200 m. At the entrance to the city from the east bay door Coy Darwaza, is captured in a single frame of the entire chain of: Abdul-bobo , Pahlavan-kari, Seyyed-Sheliker-bye, Islam-Khoja, Juma, Kalta Minor, Bika-jan-Bika.
          Khiva - the most "mnogominaretny" city of all the historical cities of Uzbekistan. Minarets Khorezm differ from maverannahrskih very important: the crowning of their arched lantern is not hanging over the barrel, and is within him, and found only a small arched openings, hence their special symmetry. Moreover, as Whatever they were numerous, none of the minaret is different: architects found in each case, the subtle pleasures in proportions, silhouette and architectural decoration.
           Minaret Islam-Hodge (1908 - 1910.) Remembered an easy and graceful silhouette, which culminated in the "inner city". He was at 1 m below the minaret of Kalyan (his height - 44,5 m), but it seems much higher than him, due to its shape. The trunk of Islam-Khoja, having a diameter below 9.5 m, reduced vigor and ends up only a small whisk cornice and cupola above the room crier. Brick inlay Kalyan minaret emphasizes its monumentality, thorough communication with the ground. A Minaret Islam-Khoja surrounded glittering ribbons facings and looking to the sky, the haze that dissolve, melt its mosaic of blue, blue, white, turquoise tiles. In its construction, and preparing decorative ornament attended the best artists of his time Balta Vaisov, Ishmuhammad Khudaiberdyev, Kalandar Kuchum etc.
      Kalta Minor (1851 - 1855 G.). He intended to become the largest minaret in Central Asia, if it had been completed: at the base diameter of 14.2 m height it would reach 70 m. According to the historian of Khiva Muniz, construction stopped in the middle of the death of Muhammad Amin Khan at. Minaret and called "Kalta," that is "short."
The minaret at the Juma Mosque (XVIII century).. The oldest and the second tallest minaret in Khiva is located near the former mosque. It was built to replace the destroyed building large court Abdurrahman Mihtarom. Unlike other minaret in Khiva, he almost never decorated.
Minaret of Tura-Murat-Tur (1888g.). This miniature minaret was now alone among the houses in front of Kun-arch, built in the eponymous mosque which has not survived.
     Minaret-Sayyid Sheliker-bai (30-40-ies. XIX century).. In a chain verticals, following the road east of Ichon-Qala, is one of the oldest minaret in Khiva architectural complex-Sayyid Sheliker-bai, outside the gates of Pahlavan-Darwaza. The complex includes several who joined to each other monuments: the four internal devyatikupolnuyu mosque and madrasa half, between which is very slender minaret with a tapered barrel (its height - 24 m, diameter at the base - 4m).
    Minaret Abdal-bobo - small (height - 10 m, base diameter - 3,2 m), but expressive, with a sharply reduced the diameter of the barrel up a plump, topped with an elegant cornice - Sharaf. On the way to Coy Darwaza, is an architectural complex of Abd-al-bobo, which developed around a small-town cemetery. Here on the shores of House in a big quarter mosque traded slaves.
    Minaret Pahlavan-Kari (1905), built with the same number of madrassas Khorezm merchant, to perpetuate the way his name for posterity. Pahlavan-curry - one of the most monumental minarets Dishan feces.
   Minaret Bica-Bica-jan (1894g.). It is located outside the gates of the Ata-Darwaza. It is like twice the minaret Abdal-bobo. In memory of the old-timers keep the name who built his master - usto Namlak.
Madrasah in Khiva building among the surviving monuments of architecture is dominated by madrassas. They have different values, but reproduces a single type of composition: yard complex in the entrance of concentrated public halls and lobby, situated around a courtyard residence. Living section is usually out of the room and the entrance lancet niche, but in large buildings of the Khan's two-room section do sometimes, as in the palaces, just had a vaulted ceiling.
         In Khiva Madrasah as always, the principle of the new interpretations of traditional themes. Their volume, depending on the location, then stretched in the longitudinal, then the transverse axis, splits in two, got some fantastic circuits, squeezing in urban areas of incorrect configuration. Axis of the court highlighted two or four portals changed floors. Each time the system is proportional to the re-designed the monument, construction overlap and composition of decor, but the type of building with a courtyard preserves the. Just to name a chief of the numerous monuments.
    Madrassas Shirgazi Khan (1718 - 1720 gg.). The oldest in Khiva, located in the heart of Ichon-Qala. It was built by slaves captured Shirgazi Khan in a campaign to Khurasan;
after the construction they were promised freedom. Masonry was completed in one year, but Shirgazi tightened the job, and in 1726. rebellious slaves killed in an unfinished Khan madrasa. His mausoleum is adjacent to the main facade of the building. Date of completion of construction is encrypted historian Muniz in poetic streak - Tarija "Death of the slaves accept."
   Medrese of Muhammad Amin-inaka (1785). Small madrasas had been built in front of the Juma Mosque. Shape of the lot affected by his plan - madrassas is elongated in the transverse direction. Among the facilities here is the tomb, possibly of the builder of the building.
          Madrassas Kutlug Mourad inaka (1804-1812 gg.) Initiated an ensemble of large buildings at the eastern gate Yichang-Kala. It is built uncle of Allah Kuli Khan, who was buried there, beneath the floor of the central compartment vestibule. Dates of construction are read in the inscriptions carved wooden doors. Composition of the madrassas - the canonical, with the correct chetyrehayvannoy circuit court. Parallel to the main facade is a suite of five rooms, the extreme of them - darshana and a mosque, the average amount units pass into the courtyard CASE-shed. In the courtyard there is arranged an indoor dome well - kuduk that supplied water to all the people of Khiva.
   Medrese of Allah Kuli Khan (1834-1835 gg.) Situated opposite Kutlug Mourad inaka and is one of the richest on the finish. As the inscription on a column of his front door. In the madrasa's city library, which enjoy all of Khiva Madrassah students.
Medrese-Kalan Kazi (1905), a small plain in architecture is now in its khujdras arranged exhibition of the Museum of Applied Art and Life of Khorezm.
     Islamic madrassas Hodge (1910). Its position in the center of Khiva noted famous minaret of the same name. Madrasahs, built on the site close, small, but its main facade, raised to a height of two floors, is a worthy backdrop minaret. This is one of the most recent madrasa in Bukhara. Work performed usto Hudaibergen Hodge usto Ish-Muhammad and usto Bolt.
Medrese of Muhammad Rahim Khan (late XIX century.). The monumental architectural monument located in front of Kun-Ark. It has a closed space with a patio khujdras before the main facade, which is typical in Khiva and other madrassas (madrasahs unpreserved yards before Muhammad Amin Khan, Amir of the tour is now restored). Courtyard madrasa Muhammad Rahim Khan - double decker and vestibule of the nine sections - the most branched of all known Central Asian madrasas. The dimensions of this large monument - 62.4 h49, 7m, the court-29h28, 3 pm
       Medrese of Muhammad Amin Khan (1852-1855 gg.). It has impressive size (71,7 x 60m x 38m yard -38), built at the western gate of Ichon-Qala. It was the rich theological school, which owned extensive Endowment income and assets. Here, as in the madrassas of Muhammad Rahim Khan, were arranged comfortable doubles khujdras and balconies that overlook the exterior facade on the second floor. Now here was placed Tourist Hotel Khiva.
 
Mosque in Khiva
   Juma mosque (in the XVIII century.) Situated in the heart of Ichon-Kala was built khan dignitary Abdurrahman Mihtarom at the consecration of a tradition place: Khiva mosque here is mentioned the Arab geographer Makdisi (al-Muqaddasi). The building plays a rare Central Asian type of archaic multicolumn mosque. Essentially, it's just a wooden canopy over the area.
        Roof with three light wells supports a forest of carved wooden columns, 25 of them - the old, from X to XVI centuries. Among them are particularly valuable four columns X-XI centuries. They are installed, as evidenced by carved Kufic inscriptions on them, by order of Faqih Abul Fadl al-Muhammad Lyaysi apparently has made this generous gift of a mosque in the order of charity.
On the marble slab, the right of the mihrab, engraved text vakfname, that is, dedication of an instrument of permanent possessions and income mosque. At the southern entrance door has a date - 1203 AH, ie 1788 Entrance gate-Juma, inserted into the main doorway next to the minaret, rightly considered one of the masterpieces of wood carving in Khorezm.

            Ak-Mosque (1838-1842gg.) Situated in the ensemble at the eastern gate Ichon-Qala. This is a monumental domed hall, surrounded on three sides by columned aivan. Foundation was laid in 1657, essentially the same building, as indicated by the inscription on the door, rebuilt in 1838-1842.
The composition of some quarter mosque in Khiva is complemented by an elongated courtyard, where the go, as in a residential home, single-line high-ulu quince and opposite him a low-Ters aivan, attached to the premises at the entrance. In folk architecture quarterly mosque unites an abundance of carved wood. Among the magnificent columns aivans have samples of very old, as in other monument early XIX century. - Mosques Bogbonly.
         
Mosque Bogbonly (1809) is located in the southern city on the road to Tash-Darwaza. As mentioned in the inscriptions, interwoven into the painting ceiling, it was built in 1224g. AH. Same date and name of the architect - Pahlavan-coolies, who owns the author's intent of the building, written in verse on a stone slab laid to the east of the entrance to the mosque. On the front door - the name of another master woodcarver Roose Muhammad, son of Adin Muhammad. Aivan carved wooden columns, similar in character thread with columns XIV century. in the Juma mosque are of great artistic value, is seen archaic stylized fish and birds. It is possible that the mosque in 1809 were used the previous parts of the building.
 
Mausoleums
     For Khorezm typical form is very high with mausoleums utonyayuschimsya up a portal, crowned with a double arcature and notched brick cornice.
     Uch-Ovliya mausoleum (XVI century). - Title monument translates as "The Mausoleum of the Three Saints" It was built on once-suburban cemetery, which was filled up to the XX century., Burying the lower parts of the building walls. Now he stands behind the palace Tash -Hawley.
Archaeological excavations mausoleum released from deposits. The vast hall is covered with a dome on the arched sails with characteristic angles of Khorezm filled honeycomb stalactites. Faceted niche in the back of the hall is crowned with stellate reticulo-set "kolab-kari", reminiscent of the work of masters of Bukhara XVI century. Who may have participated in this building. The names of the same Khiva virtuoso wood carving imprinted on the front door portal.
Mausoleum of Sayyid Allauddina (XIV century, XIV cent.). In Khiva remained buried in the ground for 500 years of his life the famous monument of architecture - the two-chamber, which is located between the madrasa of Muhammad Amin Khan and Matniyaz-fold-run. A small shrine with a unique majolica tomb was built in the first half of the XIV century. And in the XIX century to her from the west was added to a spacious room - ziarethana with the portal entrance. Tombstone gurkhan performed in Khorezm traditions XIV century.
In the center of Ichon-Qala was now a vast architectural complex, who grew up near the grave of the remarkable poet Pahlavan-Mahmud, a resident of Khiva, who died in 1322 or in 1325, he was also a famous wrestler and a craftsman - a master on sewing of fur coats. The name of the hero legend turned into a feast - the patron saint of Khiva. In Babur say about him:
"... one of incomparable men of that time was Pahlavan Mohammad Syed Boo. He was an outstanding wrestler, and also make poems ... Pahlavan Mohammad was a man, pleasant in conversation, a combination of fighter craft such properties - quite amazing. "
Poet and humanist extolled moral purity rights, denounced their oppressors.
Pahlavan was buried in the courtyard of his workshop, and over time this tomb was the basis of extensive cemetery.
The existing entrance to the architectural complex was designed, as evidenced by the inscription on the door at 1113g. AH (1701) Construction Shahniyazhanom domed kiosk - darvaza-khans ..
Tomb and the tomb of Pahlavan-Mahmud, like Khan's, were "dressed" with time Khiva blue-blue majolica tiles. Majolica highest artistic merits covers all the walls and domes inside the building, which was extended further in 1825. Annexe east gallery.
Among the epigraphic ornaments, there are philosophical sayings such as: "Man does not become, not yet serve humanity."
Building inscriptions tell us the names of the masters, and decorated majolica vozvedshih this magnificent monument of architecture. Around the courtyard in front of the mausoleum was built mosque-aivan. Pilgrims from distant places found refuge in khujdras-cells. Was provided and the refectory - oshhona the kitchen. In 1913. in the courtyard in front of the mausoleum was built a modern two-storey building. In one of its rooms arranged a splendid tomb Isfendiyar Khan.

At the end of the XIX century. cemetery for the construction of the mausoleum of shielded four karihana and madrassas Yakubbay Hodja. Karihana - charitable institutions - were home a haven for the blind because of the strong dusty winds in Khorezm was the great number of eye diseases. Karihana takes Bukhara street, goes around the rear of the complex Pahlavan-Mahmud. In architecture, they combine the features of the home and small madrasas.
Land of Khorezm - the birthplace of prominent mathematician of the Middle Ages Al-Khwarizmi, whose terms "algebra" and "algorithm" entered modern science. In Khiva is a monument to a famous scientist. Sculptor S. Babayan portrayed mathematics at the time of in-depth reflection on next treatise presented in the form of a scroll, long curled edge of which falls from the stone to the ground.
All museums Khiva include in a single complex of the State Historical-Architectural Museum-Reserve Ichon-Kala.
Museum of the History of Khorezm named Al-Khwarizmi and Biruni was built for the anniversary of al-Khwarizmi (architect C. Sutyagin). Exposition of the museum was moved from the former palace of Tash-Hauli.
Department of Archaeology is based on the materials of the Khorezm Archaeological and ethnographic expedition under the leadership of the famous orientalist SP Tolstova. In ancient times the territory of Khorezm existed vysokotsivilizovannye state.The museum of archaeological finds from the ancient settlements Koykrylgan-kala (III century. BC. Er.) And Toprak-kala (VI cent. Mr. Er.). In the temple premises was found a sculpture called "Khorezm goddess with a vessel, a copy of which can be seen in the museum. It is interesting sculptures and fragments of monumental murals found in the palace of Toprak-kala.
On culture of the Middle Ages tell archaeological materials, models of architectural structures, fragments of ceramic coating, discovered at the restoration work in the Yichang-Kale and Dishan feces.
To other museums in Khiva adapted monuments of medieval architecture - the former palaces, mosques and madrassas.
Museum of Applied Art and Life of Khorezm in madrassas Kazi, Kalyan and includes works of the XVIII-XIX. and some samples of the XX century. Khiva guests can meet here with the products of craftsmen who created the beautiful designs of jewelry, carpet weaving, pottery, woodcarving and stone, and copper coinage. A collection of women's jewelry attracts a variety of techniques characteristic of Khorezm. Here, head, shoulder, forehead, temple, ear, nose, neck, chest, waist, wrist adornments, which feature - a harmonious relationship with the clothing, the multi-tier form, an abundance of waving pendants.
Local features different art-metal. Ornament covered with elongated slender kettles (choydishi), trays, jugs for washing pots for me, pencil cases, etc. Sometimes patterns include an inscription, often poetic expression. A model of this vessel is on display.
The Museum of Applied Arts can be found with all the variety of forms of Khorezm ceramics. In the middle of the XIX century. it suffered its new prosperity. The exhibition features works by famous artists - usto Allakora, usto Yusupkulola, Iskander Kalanta-Rova and other products are characterized by artistic originality in both forms, and in colors, mostly green. In the motifs painted ceramic masters from Khorezm use specific subject image - pots, knives, musical instruments, guns, etc.

Khorezm is famous for its carved wood. The museum presents works craftsmen of Uzbekistan, woodcarver ata Palvanova, whose works were exhibited at international exhibitions.
Craft Museum is located in the building of madrasas Matpana-bai. It presents exhibits reflecting life and the tools of artisans Khorezm.
Skill blacksmiths, gunsmiths, jewelers, masons, tanners, potters, weavers reached in XIX-XX centuries. high level. Khiva is famous for its craftsmen, jewelers, tinsmith, masters of painting on wood, carpet. It worked carvers ganch, engravers, there woodworking shops and workshops for the production of woolen fabrics, leather goods, has been the development of art taps into the fabric. With many kinds of crafts, with tools, as well as its results can be found at the Museum of Craft - the only one in Uzbekistan. Not far from the museum is the anvil. In a small studio overlooking the street, the fire burns, and in front of curious onlookers made a pitcher. So clearly demonstrates the art of folk artists of Khiva.
By decision of UNESCO Khiva is included in the treasury of world heritage.


 

Bukhara

"The noble, sacred, priceless, the city - museum, city of poetry and fairy tales." And all this - about Bukhara.
Attracts its romantic image of tourists from around the globe, despite the sharp continental climate.
Summer in Bukhara is hot and dry, the average temperature in July reaches +30' C.Winter is relatively warm: average January temperature is 0 'to - 4'S. The average annual temperature exceeds 15'S.

This amazing city since the formation and before 1920 shall not exceed the limits set in the XVI century, a powerful fortress wall.
Modern Bukhara was placed on an area of ​​over 710 hectares. This territory remained around 170 monuments. The basic layout of the city, the current depending on the terrain, preserved to this day.

According to historical chronicles, in VI. the city bore the name - Numichkat in VII-VIII v.kitayskie sources call it - of down, Buho, According to the ancient caravan route followed not only merchants and diplomats, travelers, and the dervishes, but come on and the invaders. Many times in its history, the city was destroyed and burned, but from the ruins again and again revived life.

And today, Bukhara - a living embodiment of a centuries-old history of the city, the true chronicle in stone. Architectural creativity of the ancient architects - our precious asset.
The city is now home to 241,300 people have survived not only the individual mosques, madrassas and mausoleums, but whole areas of ancient planning. Here is heard the Uzbek, Tajik, Russian speech, hand in hand living and working more than 80 nationalities. The city declared a state historical-architectural museum-reserve.

Historical background of Bukhara and Bukhara region

The traditional date of Bukhara on Narshakhi 3000 years.
The oldest materials shakhristan city "Buho" 2500.
The oldest materials Arch "Numi 4-3 cc BC
The earliest mention in the Chinese five centuries AD
Taking the city of Bukhara, 707 Arabs
The coming to power in Bukhara Samanids Ismail 874
Bukhara - the nation's capital Samanid 829-999 GG
Bukhara in the Karakhanid State 11-12 centuries.

Bukhara in the state Khorezmshakhs years 1212-1220.
Bukhara in the Mongol ulus Chagataidov 1220-1370gg.
Membership in the power of Amir Temur 1370g.
The state capital and Sheybanihana Ashtarkhanids 16 century.
Branch of the khanate of Bukhara Fergana Valley early. 18 th century.
The establishment of a protectorate of Russia in 1873
The establishment of the People's Republic of Bukhara, 1920.
Membership in the Uzbek SSR in 1925
Bukhara province as part of the independent Republic of Uzbekistan, 1991.

Historical Places

Varahshansky Palace (V-IX in a). Located at the southern fortress wall fort west of the citadel. The building appeared in V. and lasted until the end of VIII or IX in the beginning. Buildings are very important surgery. During the zenith building is a well-organized structure.
The structure of the palace buildings were mostly three in a row of large ceremonial hall - east, west, and red. In the halls along the walls were wattle and daub sufy.

East Hall: (17h11 size, 5 m, height of not less than 6,5 m). Sufa in Honor (south) wall has expanded, forming a broad platform. On the south wall of the king's image reception, chaired by the governor, seated on a throne.
Red Room: (size 12h8, 5). Before there were special sufoy rise for light or flame. The walls are painted with scenes of hunting for prey and fantastic beasts.
West Hall: Dimensions: (7.25 x 6.6 m). From the west staterooms closed the extensive courtyard area 30x 9 meters. The territory of the courtyard was paved with baked bricks. The southern part of the courtyard was raised above the rest of his area, forming elevations, which led to stage 3. Walls surrounding the courtyard were richly decorated.
The main rooms of the palace, built on a high platform, towered over the rest of the buildings shakhristan. The palace was built over a thousand years ago.

Varakhsha striking in its significance, its size and beautiful frescos. However, it is virtually deserted place, rarely visited by residents, due to the fact that he is a few tens of kilometers from the city of Bukhara. In contrast, the Ark is located in the heart of the city. He is the last bastion of Emirs.

Arch - the citadel (VII century). This hill is the juxtaposition of the monumental buildings of the citadel of the city superimposed on each other for over 2000 years. The fortress overlooks the Registan Square symbol of greatness, the power of inaccessibility. Age Arch is not set, but in any case, fifteen hundred years ago, this fortress was the seat of the ruler of a vast and populous country. For centuries, Ark remained the main residence of the emir.

What is Ark now? This is a great earthy elevation. The plan is close to an irregular rectangle, somewhat elongated in the direction from west to east. South-eastern corner is slightly cut off. It is located in the middle of the western part of the modern city. The length of the wall area of ​​789.6 m, 3.96 ha. Height from the Registan Square 16do varies from 20m. Ceremonial entry into the Ark of Architecture is designed as two towers stolboobraznyh. The upper portion of the tower is connected galleries, over which the new premises with terraces. Entrance to the Arch of the collar is a ramp or a gradually rising path that leads through a long covered corridor to the Jamia Mosque. Ramp on both sides fenced massive stone railing, its length of about 20m, on one wall hung a large leather whip (symbol of authority of the Emir). From the gate to get into a dark corridor, along which there are facilities for water and a few cells for prisoners.
In the Arch is a large complex of buildings. The eastern half is now an archaeological monument. Here a mosque childuhtaron.

Today, here is the historical museum. The Arch is located opposite the only surviving monument to the Registan - Bolohauz mosque.
The mosque has a striking design - a painted ceiling aivan support numerous graceful columns. Next to a small khauz is a miniature minaret. Say, here to accomplish prayers go down the path of the Arch, carpeted himself Emir.

Madrassas Modar Khan (1566 - 1567 gg.) Built in honor of his mother Abdullakhan II.In
1968 Monument celebrated 400 years. In the annals of one of the court historians Abdullakhan says: "The components of its high vaults and lift ¬ shennye dome, the upper and lower rooms and the bases were made from the top down firmly." In the year of 400 anniversary of the monument, archaeologists have confirmed this: the building stands solidly and is currently .
The building is situated at an angle to the road, so that the exact symmetry ¬ symmetry in the ensemble there. The main facade of the madrasa Modar Khan ornate izraz ¬ particles of colored brick mosaic, which form various geometric patterns.Furnishings fill the tympanum of the facade of painted majolica tiles depicting the flower buds. All hu ¬ dozhestvennaya finish madrassas looks very modest.
Madrassas Abdullakhan (1588-1590gg.) Was built almost a quarter of a century after Modar Khan on the principle of "Kosh", which is two buildings were erected the "face" to each other. The basic principle of planning is the same: the premises are located around a courtyard. But the building itself is much more complicated: Mr. Lavna input has a high portal, which are flanked with two-storey wings with balconies and the entrance gallery on the top floor. Large sizes of the facade and set decoration means give it a colorful festive ¬ explicit form. In bright sunlight, well played by cool colors of majolica tiles ¬ O (blue, green and blue, and white).
In the decoration of the madrasah Abdullakhan, as in all ensembles ¬ Bleu in general sense of novelty. Instead of expensive color mosaic veneer produced by standard majolica tiles. Figure became more bright and beautiful, but lost, compared with a mosaic in a clearly ¬ particular, has become more blurred. Nevertheless, this does not spoil the appearance of the honey ¬ RECE, because majolica figure is perceived from afar as a colored spot.

With great skill to make the doors of madrasas, assembled from separate pieces of wood with a fine thread, without a single nail.
Abdullakhan lobby is a gallery with two aisles in the yard. The central dome rests on 16 of its arochkah forming a constructive framework, filled with polished brick. Ribs arochek simulate ¬ exist masonry, the joints are inserted majolica blue ribbons. On the dome patterns, consisting of five, eight and devyatikonechnyh stars. Pattern skufi dome is made from terracotta ribbons, laid on a background of majolica inserts blue.On a dark blue background clearly distinguished ¬ us to light openwork decoration.
Baland Mosque (XV century). - Translates as "high". His name must position on a high stone foundation. This is a typical pattern of quarterly guzarnyh mosques. Cubic volume with a flat false ceiling and on aivan carved wooden columns. The domination of the plane is compensated by a classically proportioned found parts: panel, above the alternating large and small panels, then a frieze. Panel mosque - a series of rectangular frames, each of which fills a mosaic pattern. The middle part of the wall mural decked lancet shape, filled with floral pattern, then narrow the field for the inscription on the frame, then figured nishoy over the border - they alternate with each other and separated by shape and pattern. Wooden ceiling, intricate woodwork, with the deepening of the stalactite in the middle of the starry figure. Hex tile panels - painted in gold with the fundamental. The mosque Baland means beautiful wall decorations are designed with exceptional brilliance. The region was believed that the mosque is exemplary.
Hanaka Hoxha Zayniddin (HVIv.). She also served khanaka and guzarnoy mosque and Mazar Shaikh Zainuddin. The builders of the mosque have taken into account particularly the location of her residential neighborhood. It was paved with stone slabs House that supplied the inhabitants of the quarter and the parishioners of drinking water. The southern facade of the building embodies the deepest niche - race open portico, as if absorb parishioners and carries them through the shady lanes in the twilight mosque.

Tomb of Sheikh stands in a special niche of the west facade facing on the street, which is unusual for the burial of the "holy". From the yard khanaka circled by two facades column ayvan. Slender columns support the graceful inlaid wooden ceiling of the sixteenth century.
The main dome room rectangular, extensive, high. Rich polychrome decoration adorns the hall from the bottom to the top of the dome. Figure (now red and blue, had a gilt or gold background) transfers only to a small extent the extraordinary effect that was achieved in the past use of technology "kundal. Excellent and abacus mosque, dissected into individual rectangular fields, filled with geometric shapes and elegant arochki with abundant color patterns. The architecture is traditional, and goes back to the earliest examples of folk architecture of the feudal era.

Minaret of Kalyan (1127g.), erected Karakhanids Arslanhanom. The new minaret was built entirely of brick. Building height 46.5 m, and all his fundamental part goes to a depth of 10m. The diameter of the cap reaches 9m. Powerful tapered thinning to the top of a massive pillar ends cylindrical lantern-rotunda at the crown of the stalactite cave. The lantern has 16 cross-arched openings, over which launched the crowning stalactite cornice. Here the guides will tell no one legend associated with this miraculous creation.
Kalyan Minaret, the bridge is connected to junction with the roof of the mosque Kalyan, where you can get inside the minaret and upstairs in the rotunda of the narrow and steep spiral staircase, brick, there were 105 steps. From the minaret of the rotunda a great view of Bukhara, the remnants of its walls.

At the foot of the minaret of Kalyan is a monumental architectural ensemble - Kalyan Mosque and madrasa Mir - Arab. Together with a small area lying between them they form a single complex, called Sing - Minar, ie, "foot minaret.
Kalyan Mosque (1514) one of the buildings that make up the magnificent architectural ensemble of Kalyan. The mosque is considered one of the oldest and second largest after the Bibi Khanum (Samarkand) in Asia. It was built on-site mosque CPs.
Main entrance - East, is decorated with big portals, decorated with mosaics. The portal is located on a hill and into the courtyard mosque are a few steps. With each step down the sails apart arches and overlooks the mikhrab niche facing towards Mecca. On each side of its towering two blue domes. Rectangular courtyard is framed by arcades, consisting of 288 domes. Base of the pillars is 208. The building occupies an area of ​​1 hectare. Accommodates about 10,000 worshipers.

Medrese Miri-Arab (early 20's. HUIv. - 1536g) is opposite the mosque Kalyan. For Madrassah Miri - Arab inherent in the traditional scheme of planning - chetyrehayvanny square yard, circled hujras two floors, two domed hall on the right and left. The main facade of the center is underlined portal, which are adjacent two-story loggia. The facade is flanked on both sides of the turrets guldasta.
In the center gurkhan (tomb) stands a wooden tombstone Khan Uybadully. In his head - the tomb of Miri - Araba.

The decoration of the madrasah found composing carved mosaics, multicolored stylized ornament. This facility is part of the ensemble of the mosque and minaret Kalyan. Currently, in the madrassas is acting religious school.

Mausoleum of Ismail Samani (X c). The monument has demonstrated the development of construction equipment and a high level of architectural art. The Mausoleum is a type of centric structure, whose walls are slightly skewed. The transition from the square walls of the dome carried by the angular Tromp - engineering design, known in Central Asia with doarabskih times. On top of the building at the Tromp is hollow gallery, opening on the outside of an arcade of small lancet windows. This gives the ease and flexibility of design and creates a kind of light inside the mausoleum.
All four facades of the mausoleum are the same. The central axes of the square of the mausoleum are large, gothic arches. Corners of the building from the outside flank the powerful three quarters brick columns. The walls inside and outside the processed patterned brick masonry, creating a rich texture of the cut-off walls, giving a lightness to the building.
Samanid Mausoleum, built at the turn of the ninth and tenth century according to legend, was built Ismail Samani, the founder of the Samanid state. Later, the mausoleum was the family tomb Samanid: it was buried himself Ishmael, and then his grandson Ismail.
The building is well preserved and is considered one of the masterpieces of world architecture.
Chashma Ayub (1380 -1384/85g.g.) It is unusual in a cone-shaped dome, the dome ceilings that give a special intimacy of small darkened rooms. All kind of mausoleum's mood detached contemplation: "Muslims do not die, but only transferred from one door to another."
Due to the fact that inside the building there is a source of water (well), the guide always tells the legend of the appearance of a well, to visit this place the biblical prophet Job (Ayub).
Now in this room is a water museum and a traveling exhibition of carpets.

Ulugbek Madrasah (1417). The only building remaining in Bukhara, the memory of the great astronomer Ulugbek. The creators of madrassas are the best architects of that time Nazhmetdin Ismail Bukhari and Isfahan. At his door was cut, "The quest for knowledge - the duty of every Muslim man and woman." The inscription over the door reads: "Above the circle of people knowledgeable in the book of wisdom, let them be every moment opened the door for God's blessing." Madrassas Ulugbek - a rectangular building with a courtyard and grand entrance, decorated with a high portal. Log forked cross corridors. At one end of the corridor was darshona (study room), in the other - the mosque. On the second floor - the library. The facade is a two-tiered arcade and has two wings. On both sides it is closed the tower - guldasta.Clear and the internal construction of the courtyard is framed by a two-storied galleries cells, where students lived. The walls and arches are decorated with a very modest, but tiles glitter just where you expect to see them. Madrassas ornamented astral nature, what is undoubtedly affected world Ulugbek as an astronomer. Quiet monastic life was spent in prayers - in mosques, lectures - in darshane, conversations in shady galleries.
Following the model of the madrasas began to build madrassas in Central Asia.

Madrassas Abdulazishana (HVIv.). Erected on a single axis with ulugbekovskim, much higher than it and scope and richness. This madrasa with chetyrehayvannym yard, with the portal entrance, corner guldasta and loggias, alcoves around the court and the facade. Ceiling covers painted in "kundal. To make the entrance portal singular harmony, he developed vertically, disrupting the harmony of proportions and the portal seems overly stretched, and the side wings are heavy. Stucco stalactites abound, but dry and monotone. The dimensions of the court over-stretched in length - lost the beauty aspect. But some of the interior decoration is surprising.
Chor Minor (1807) - a very picturesque and madrassas with peculiar chetyrehbashennoy building located on one of the side streets mahalinskih Mazarskih gate. It was built in the XIX century, rich Turkomans Khalifa Niyazkulom. In one of the towers was a surprisingly large library.

Taki Zargaron (HVIv.) (Jewelers). At the intersections of the shopping streets ofbazaars built the dome.
Taki Telpak Furrushon - a place selling hats.
Taki Sarrafon. Under this dome perform various transactions.
Magoki-Attari Mosque (presumably X-XII-HVIvv.) located close to Taki Sarrafon. Itshistory goes to the Sogdian ancient times, when this place was located Bazaar Moss.Here was a pagan temple, where with the approval of Islam mosque was built. It is believed that this is the mosque Maggoki-Attari. Substantial restructuring of itsaccounts at the XII century. when I was faced again the main facade of the mosque.

In the sixteenth century - is a small quarter mosque. In 1930, restorers released thatalmost 4,5 meters left in the ground ,provided an opportunity to survey the mainartistic attraction of the mosque . All the variety of architectural decoration - curlylaying of polished brick, carved bricks, forming various combinations, patterns, ornaments, terra-cotta plates, partially glazed terracotta - all organically combined in the design of the portal niche.

Ensemble Labi - House (XVII cent.) Consists of several disparate buildings.
Three buildings Kukeldash (1568-1569g), hunk Nadir Divan Begi (up to 1620g), Nodir Divan Begi (1620g.) constitute a complex in which the central organizing element is Labi - House. Labi-hauz - one of the retail space, so named by the name of a huge swimming pool, located in the middle of the square, built in 1620

Madrassas Kulba - Kukeldash (1568-1569g) - the oldest part of the complex Labi - House, has 160 cells and is considered the biggest in Bukhara. Placement in a madrasa impression of tightness, heaps of moves, steps, cubbyhole. The best thing that has kept madrasa architecture - design decoration of the two main halls of mosques and darshany and bathing under the floor passageways leading from the gates of madrassas in the yard, very nice inlaid wooden doors of different complex stellate pattern.

Nodir Divan Begi (up to 1620g), was originally built as a caravanserai, but in 1630 it was transformed into a madrassa. Interestingly good proportions of the facade and the remains of deer pictures, fantastic birds in timbrels arches. Yet Nadvornaya of madrassas several templates.

Today in the courtyard of tourist venue for concerts of masters of Bukhara, fashion show, made exclusively from natural fabrics in Uzbekistan, which can be purchased at the end of the demonstration. Often, employees of tour agencies organize at this place, and dinner cuisine.

Mausoleum Seyfeddin Boharzi (XIV - HVIvv.). Mausoleum built up over the burial of the famous Central Asian mystic. In the fourteenth century were built the main rooms and in the XV - HVIvv. - The entrance portal. The Mausoleum has an impressive form and at the same time is attractive for its simplicity and clarity. The building has a complex plan - Crypt-gurkhan room, commemorations - zierathana. Above them two domes - large and small. The main entrance is highlighted with a three-quarter peshtak strong towers at the corners. No decoration no outside or inside. Only rich in the decorative element on - a luxury wooden tomb of the fourteenth century, set in gurkhan.
Mausoleum of Buyan Quli Khan (ok.1358 city) Buyan Quli was the Mongol khan, who ruled in Central Asia. Mausoleum of two-chamber, moreover, circled a hidden corridor.

Samarkand


City, whose age is estimated more than twenty five centuries, fascinates and attracts with its beauty and uniqueness.

Modern Samarkand - the second city in Uzbekistan after Tashkent in population and territory industrial importance, the center of world tourism. Located on the left bank of the middle reaches of hilly Zeravshan.

 
The very nature has endowed Samarkand wonderful climate and clean water - it is located in one of the paradises of the Uzbek land.
 
The climate is continental-subtropical Samarkand. Number of clear days, 155, the amount of sunshine hours 2916, the average temperature of 13.4 years, in January -0, July 26, the absolute minimum of -27, the absolute maximum +45'.
 
The population of 364.3 thousand.
 
The main water artery of the city are River Zarafshan, channels Darga, Siab, Shaudar.

 
City History
 
Samarkand - one of the oldest cities in the world, as old as Rome, Athens, Babylon. True poets and historians of the past gives him such epithets as lush as the "Garden of Eden East", "Face of the Earth", "Precious Pearl of the Eastern world,"

 
The natural abundance of Zarafshan Valley, where there was Samarkand, praised in the holy hymns of the Avesta.
 
In the middle of the 1 st millennium BC Greek sources mention of Samarkand in the form of Marakanda in medieval ruins of the ancient Samarkand, were called Afrasiab. The earliest written mention of Samarkand refers to 329 BC. er. when the Greek - Macedonian army led by Alexander the Great conquered it. In the first century the city fell under the sway of powerful kangyuskoy power.
 
In the 6-7 centuries. stood at the head of Samarkand rulers ishhidy, acting in close contact with the Turkic Khanate. In late July - early August centuries. Central Asian troops came the Arabs - the conquerors.

 
In the spring of 1220 the city seized the hordes of Genghis - Khan, who destroyed its ancient foundation.
 
14-mid 15 th centuries. were marked by a significant rise of new economic, political and cultural life of Samarkand. And at this time has increased and international fame of Samarkand as the capital of Temur created a vast empire that stretched from the Volga to the Ganges, from the Tien Shan to the Bosphorus. The governor wanted to transform the beautiful city of Samarkand.

 
From each victorious campaign in India, Afghanistan, Iran, Syria, Caucasus, Turkey, he was sent to Samarkand's most skillful architects, jewelers, and scientists. In its power Temur was the creator - the creator. He generously encouraged artists and poets, thinkers and scientists. These genes will be passed and then his grandson - Ulugbek whose star catalogs, and maps, created five centuries ago, around the world admired today.
 
It was during the reign of Temurids Samarkand reached the highest peak.

 
The rulers of European countries considered it an honor to visit this city.
 
Samarkand - city of legends. Here every stone, ravine or water - a living legend of the past, every quarter of the city (Husar or Mahalla) stores, as pedigree, his legend. Sometimes legends acquires any historical event or a place dear to the heart of each of Samarkand.
 
In the years of independence, Samarkand flourished with renewed vigor. State and the President paid attention to the restoration of historic monuments and allocate more funds for their content.

 
Settlement of Afrasiab (VII century BC-XIII century AD) holds in its bosom the remains of the destroyed ancient Mongols of Samarkand.
 
The name "Afrasiab" associated with the name of the hero of the ancient epic "Shahnameh" - Afrasiab, mighty ruler of Turan. Afrasiab now - a huge cluster of barren hills. But in the past here seething life. This explains the keen interest of scientists to the settlement of Afrasiab.

 
The first monumental masonry walls fort dating back to VII-VI centuries BC
 
At the foot of the citadel of ancient times were urban neighborhoods with urban dwellings, temples, ponds and retail space. In the palace complex of the city, located in one of the quarters of 7.8 cc AD, were found the world-famous murals made Samarkand talented painters. The walls of the ceremonial hall are decorated with highly artistic painting, executed glue paints of clay plaster.
 
Unique genre paintings, murals are on walls in three tiers. Bright colors depicted scenes of the majestic procession of men carrying rich gifts and dressed in festive fancy costumes, the movement to the temple of the capital, scenes of fighting and hunting, the image of the water kingdom.

 
Discovered murals in the original are represented today in the museum Afrosiab.

 
Translates to "sandy place". The former was once the market square of Registan today on three sides by magnificent buildings decorate: Ulugbek madrasah (1417 - 1420), Sher Dor Madrasah (1619 - 1636), Madrasah Tilla-Kari (1647 - 1660).
 
Was originally built Ulugbek madrasah, in which there were fifty-hujras cells, where more than one hundred students. Among them, according to legend, lived and studied at the famous Tajik poet Jami. According to historical chronicles in madrassas taught a course in mathematics and astronomy itself Ulugbek. And in the yard were teaching a sundial.

 
Ulugbek madrasah strongly affected by time, earthquakes, especially in the years of strife in the early XVIII century. In the 30 years of the last century there were held a unique work on straightening dismissing towards its minaret.
 
In the XVII century on the Registan was built two madrassas - Dor and Tilla-Kari. They differ impressive size and luxury finishes. The most significant of madrassas called Dor - that is, "having the lions." It was built nearly 17 years on the project Samarkand ruler Emir Yalangtusha.Po elegance, lightness and beauty of the tiled finish is superior to all existing buildings.
 
Ten years later, at the same ruler was constructed madrasas Tilla-Kari Registan closing from the north. Name of Madrasah Tilla-Kari means in translation "trimmed with gold." The building is lavishly decorated in gilded embossed paintings. Tilla-Kori madrasah, in addition to its primary mission - teaching students, carries out also the role of the mosque.

 
Cathedral mosque Bibi Khanum (1399-1404 gg.). Building it was launched after Timur's victorious campaign in India. As conceived by Timur mosque Bibi Khanum was to outshine all I have seen them in other lands. To participate in the building were brought architects, artists, craftsmen and artisans from many countries of the East. Involved more than 700 people.
 
Entrance to the courtyard was decorated as a majestic portal with two round minarets, about fifty meters in height.
 
The walls of the premises outside were richly decorated with multicolored glazed bricks. Luxurious and rich interior finishes consisted of lining majolica mosaics, carved marble, embossed on a papier-mâché, gilded ornaments. The majestic beauty of this structure has created many legends associated with the talented architect and a beautiful woman Bibi Khanum.
 
History does not know the name of Bibi Khanum. It is known that the elder's wife's name was Timur Saray Mulk Khanum.
 
Shahi Zinda necropolis (XIV - XV centuries) .. It consists of eleven mausoleums, consistently is attached to one another for centuries.
 
Entrance portal of Shahi Zinda, zaverschayuschy whole ensemble, is a late construction. The inscription above the entrance reads: "This magnificent building is based Abdulazizhanom, son Ulugbek - Guragana, son of Shah Rukh, son of Amir Timur - Guragana, in 883, the (1434).
 
It was long thought that the first one buried in a mausoleum on the left Ulugbek fellow on science activities famous astronomer Kazyzade Rumi. However, research scientists have proved that in this mausoleum there are women's graves.
 
Climbing up the thirty-six steps of the old staircase, the visitor enters the public gallery. Here the left and right are the mausoleums, the tomb of Timur closest relatives, including his wife Tuman-aka and sisters-Shirin Bika-aka. Gallery ends with a round courtyard with a vaulted arch. Beneath it is the right antique carved door leading to the most ancient building of the ensemble Shahi Zinda - Mausoleum Kusam ibn Abbas. He declared a "saint" for preaching and planting of Islam in Samarkand after its conquest by the Arabs. Keepers of Shahi Zinda tell a legend that lived here Kusam ibn Abbas, was killed infidels in prayer. However, he took, and his head had disappeared in the well (in another version hid in a cave), where he continued, ostensibly, to live to this day. Hence the name "Shait Zinda" which means "The Living King". Tomb Kusam ibn Abbas, the fenced yard of a carved wooden lattice, tiled with tiles with Arabic inscriptions.
 
Architectural ensemble Shahi Zinda is a unique museum of glazed decoration XIV - XV centuries. Here you can find and irrigation carved terracotta, and fine examples of inlaid mosaic, and a large mosaic of glazed bricks. For subtlety, elegance and diversity of no architectural monuments of Samarkand can not be compared with the Shahi-Zinda mausoleums.

 
Gur Emir (1404g.) By order of Timur had erected a mausoleum Guri-Emir - Tomb of the Emir - for the ashes of his beloved grandson of Muhammad Sultan. The mausoleum Guri-Emir Mohammed Sultan but buried - Amir Timur, his two sons - Shahrukh and Miranshah, his grandson, the great astronomer Ulugbek, as well as spiritual leader Timur Muslim sheikh from Medina - The World Sayyid Bereke and a Shah-Hodge.
 
Majesty and lightness of architectural lines and shapes, richness of multi-colored mosaics - all this makes the mausoleum a unique monument of Central Asian architecture.

 
Ak-Saray Mausoleum (XV). Lack of historical data makes the construction somewhat mysterious. Suggest that the mausoleum could be a family burial place for the descendants of Tamerlane in the male line. It was erected in the 70-ies. XV century. When the funeral filled the Gur Emir and adjacent premises. Externally, the Ak-Saray seem unappealing - devoid of decoration, the dome was left unfinished. Feels kind of incompleteness. But in terms of architectural construction, he is unique - there used new technical designs and techniques. The interior decoration does not match the appearance - the wall, the sails and the dome covers the ornamental painting, executed in the technique of "kundal with abundant use of gold. Embossing, gold, and an extensive range of color tones in the color of the lush floral pattern reminiscent of rich carpeting.

 
In line with the Gur Emir mausoleum, there is another, earlier mausoleum, built by order of Amir Temur over the grave of the famous Sheikh XIV century Burhaneddin Sagaradzhi called Rukhabad. Mausoleum of Sheikh and Gur Emir located on one axis than emphasized the spiritual bond with the highly esteemed Temurids sheikhs. Mausoleum Rukhabad (1380-ies.) Name translates as "Abode of the Spirit." The Mausoleum was built of bricks in a cube on which the octagonal drum and dome. The building looks ascetic, as a mausoleum is not decorated portals, practically no decor.
 
Mosque of Hazrat-Hyzr (XIX cent.) Revered in Islam, the legendary old man, a wanderer, whose cult goes into the pre-Islamic times. He also is the custodian of water. It was believed that the meeting with Hazrat-Hyzr is unexpected and always brings happiness to people. The mosque was reconstructed several times and now includes the portal entrance, darvazahanu, lobby, covered with a ribbed dome on a multi-faceted drum hanaka and column aivan. The decor used sharp Ganj and ceiling paintings. The mosque is a fine example of folk architecture in Samarkand school.

 
Ulugbek Observatory (1428-1429 year). Built on a hill in Samarkand. It was a three storey building is covered with colored tiles round diameter and 46M height of not less than 30m. In the main hall was placed tremendous tool for observing the sun, moon and other luminaries of the firmament.
 
The basis of the observatory was giant goniometer (vertical circle) radius of the circle which is equal to 40.212 meters and the length of the arc was 63M. the main tool - sextant - was directed with remarkable accuracy on the meridian line from north to south.
 
The dimensions of the main instrument of its successful design, scientific knowledge Ulugbek and his associates have provided remarkable accuracy astronomical observations. The Observatory was for its time, a unique structure.
 
After the tragic death of the great astrologer reactionary clergy provoked a massacre of the observatory. Research Center was ravaged, plundered most valuable library, the researchers dispersed.
 
Mazar of Khoja - Daniyar (XV cent.) (The Prophet Daniyar). It is situated in a picturesque setting on a hillside ditch Siab abounding. There is a tradition in which the arrival of these holy graves associated with the name of Amir Temur, who had brought back from a hike to the west relics of the Prophet Daniyar for burial near Samarkand. Tradition also reports that the caravan stopped in this place, as the horse which carried the remains unwilling to move on. Amir Temur ordered to bury the relics of the saint in this place, and then to kick the horse has scored curative spring. Another legend tells us that buried in the tomb of the saint miraculously began to grow, reaching about 17 meters. Currently, a tomb, covered semnadtsatimetrovoy Dakhma, mazar, built over it recently, as well as the holy source located below a cliff, are places of pilgrimage and worship for the followers of three religions - Islam, Christianity and Judaism.

 
Mazar Chupa-ata (XV century).. To the north-east of Samarkand was built in honor of the mythical holy "father of shepherds, whose cult has long been popular among the people, especially among pastoralists. This is not the gravestones structure, not a mausoleum. In its architecture - is a mausoleum, although the archaeological autopsy found it neither burial nor tomb. Mazar crowns the rocky summit and is visible from any point in the city. The architecture of the monument - a small room, covered inner dome. There is also a second outer dome. By color scheme of external decoration mazar differed twofold harmony - turquoise dome blended with the blue of the sky, and an array of reasons, devoid of veneers - the color of the loess soil at its foot, as if to confirm the principle of respect of land - the sky. "

 
Park Bugs - maidan (XV century). In the past, at the foot of the slopes Chupanatinskih created one of the most beautiful country parks. His breakdown began when Timur and completed Ulugbek. Here was a two-storey palace "Chilsutun" (ie "sorokakolonny). Among the lush trees of the garden located elegant tents, pavilions, of which the most famous was the Porcelain Pavilion (Cheney Khan), lined with blue and white Chinese porcelain tiles, brought from the imperial workshops of the ruler of China. Also used tiles skilled local imitations of him on faience, made Samarkand potters. Unfortunately, the building is not preserved.
 
Memorial Complex Imam al-Bukhari (1998). It is located 12 kilometers from Samarkand. Once upon a time, here at the tomb of Muhammad ibn Ismail Bukhari mosque was built. Himself Imam al-Bukhari was born in the IX century in Bukhara, but he died and was buried near Samarkand in 870, he from childhood, a passion for hadith, tirelessly collecting and recording stories, many of which were subsequently incorporated in "Shariah". Imam assembled and streamlined 7275 hadiths. In 16. over his grave was erected a small mausoleum near mosque was built and planted with plane trees. In 1998, in connection with the celebration of 1225 anniversary of the birth of Imam at the site of the ancient mausoleum was erected a memorial complex. The architectural solution of the modern complex with an area of 10 hectares based on the use of national traditions. It consists of the mausoleum, mosques, administrative buildings and other structures built along the perimeter of the courtyard. On the central axis of the complex is the mausoleum of Imam al-Bukhari. This structure in the form of a cube topped semnadtsatimetrovym dome. The door on the right side of the mausoleum leads down to Dakhma - a place of worship. Right under the decorated light blue onyx Sagan top floor of the tomb of al-Bukhari, covered with marble. On the left side of the courtyard is the mosque, an area which allows both believers to pray in 1500. The walls are decorated with light green, blue and white glazed tiles, marble, onyx and granite floors are decorated girihom; in finishing is also widely used Ganj. Inside the dome is decorated with colorful ornaments. In mikhrab niche hangs Kisva - matter Kaaba, donated Uzbekistan King of Saudi Arabia. Located behind the mausoleum Education Center (Dorus-Hadith), which examines the science of Hadith. The memorial complex is also a place of Muslim worship and preserve the sacred tomb. A visit to this holy place for Muslims is equated to the small Hajj. It's no wonder the people say: "If Mecca - the heart of the Muslim world, Samarkand - his head!".

 
Bridge vododelitel (early XVI century).. Remains of the bridge across vododelitelya Zarafshan are artefacts, which is located slightly below the modern railway bridge. As the notes of geographers who visited the valley of travelers around the same place was even more ancient bridge built by Temurids, and before him - a bridge, dating to around 8-9 centuries.
 
Vododelitel bridge was built by Khan Sheibani at the beginning of the XVI century. Currently, the bridge has been preserved only a brick arch.
 
Samarkand wonderful city - that neither the street, the ancient monument, or his remains. But Samarkand is also a modern city. Engineering work here, Lift, superphosphate, fruit-canning plants, knitting, tea-packing, clothing, footwear, furniture factories. The modern city of well-landscaped, it is decorated with many shady squares and parks.
 
Complex Gods Eram "opened recently. In the once neglected corner of city park created man-made lake, which is crowned by a huge amphitheater with 3,500 seats. Complex immediately became a true resting place of people. On hot summer evenings jet fountains create a special microclimate here.

 
In 1996, when the city was awarded the Order of Amir Temur, the number one, the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov said: "Samarkand - a city with a glorious past, a happy present and eternal future."

 

Tashkent


Tashkent - capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Flows through the city canals (artificial bends of the river Chirchik) - Anhor, Salar, Bozsu, Akkurgan, Burzhar, Aktepa, Karakamish, Karasu.

 
Tashkent - one of the most ancient cities of Uzbekistan. Over its two thousand years of history he has experienced and flourishing, and destruction, has repeatedly changed its name.

Historical Milestones

 
The first traces of life in the city - 15 - 12 thousand years BC (Parking at Upper Paleolithic Karakamish and Bozsu).
 
The first settlement on the site Tashkent - 6 - 4 v.v.do AD (Shashtepa).
 
Mounds of nomadic Sarmatian culture - 2 - 1v.v. BC (Shashtepa).
 
Fortified settlements in Tashkent - 1 - 4 cc. BC (Durmen).
 
The first mention of Chach in the sources of the Kaaba of Zoroaster in Iran - 262 AD
 
The first item in the city of Tashkent - 1 - 8 cc. BC (Settlement Ming Apricot)
 
The first capital of the territory of Tashkent - Madina Chacha "- 7 - 8 cc. (Settlement Ming Uruk).
 
Religious center of Tashkent - 3 - 7 cc. BC (Shashtepa)
 
Struggle with the Arabs - 8.
 
Binkent - the capital of Chach 9 - 10 centuries. BC
 
Tashkent - capital of the eponymous inheritance - 11 - 13 cc. BC (As part of Karaha-nidov and Khorezm).
 
Joining the Chagatai ulus - 1220 - Ser. 14 cc. BC
 
Tashkent in the power Temur and his dynasty - 1370 -1500 gg
 
The capital of the eponymous ownership Uzbeks - Sheibanids - 16 -17 cc. BC
 
The capital of four Khakimov - 18. BC
 
Tashkent, as part of the Kokand Khanate - 1801 -1865 gg
 
Conquest by tsarist Russia in Tashkent - 1865. (Education-ray Turkestan governor-generalship in 1868).
 
The capital of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Republic - 1918.
 
The capital UzSSR - 1930.
 
The capital of the independent state of Uzbekistan - 1991.

 
City Sights

 
Complex Sheikhantaur (II floor. XV) - One of the major historical reserves Tashkent. It was formed around the tomb of a local sheikh Havendi Takhur, who died in 1355g. On whose behalf and was named the entire area of the city. Archaeologists have proven that the first mausoleum was built in the II half of the XV century with the Khoja Ahrar, and at the end of the century near the mazar has been arranged chillyahona (underground chamber for sorokodnevnogo post). At the same time near the mausoleum of Sheikh Havendi Takhur emerged: to the north - a small centric mausoleum under the conical dome, devoted Kaldyrgach-biju, to the west - one of the largest mausoleums in Tashkent dedicated to the governor Yunus Khan. In the XVI century the mazar was the most popular "sacred place" in Tashkent, the Uzbek aristocracy were buried here. Between chillyahonoy and the mausoleum of Sheikh Havendi Takhur was a special ziarathona (room for the remembrance of the dead). At the beginning of XX century between the mausoleums and Sheikhantaur Kaldyrgach-beating was built Aurad mosque.
 
V1924 was reconstructed, some buildings had been razed.

 
Mausoleum Sheikhantaur (founded in XIV-XV centuries., Elevated portion of the end of the XVIII century. - Beginning of XIX century).. The surviving building is not original, it was erected on the old foundations, retaining the plan and the basic architectural forms. In the mausoleum are located ziarathona, gurhona. The composition of the mausoleum dominates ziarathony high dome, the dome gurhony him less and less. Mausoleum is built of light yellow brick. In windows gurhony and on the southern facade ziarathony inserted ceramic majolica pandjara (ornamental lattice). The main facade is decorated as a small portal. Decor no.
 
Mausoleum Kaldyrgach-beating (trans. floor. XV century). The oldest surviving monuments in Tashkent. Direct historical information about the time of construction there. Is dated by archaeological research. The building was built in the XV century of brick on a high quality solution, and is notable for its composition. It is rare for the Uzbek double pyramidal dome on a high dvenadtsatigrannom drum.
 
Mausoleum in terms of square, it is detached domed building. Cladding on the facade of no. The only surviving element of the decor of the XV century - is ganch stalactites at the base of the dome. Hall has four niches in the corners of four small chambers, spiral staircase and a brick khujdras. Under the main hall is a small square tomb.
 
Mausoleum Kaldyrgach-beating - only in Tashkent centric model-chamber of the mausoleum with crypts and rare in this land of many-sided marquee double dome. Kaldyrgach-biy was the ancestor of Khoja Ahrar and the governor Mogolistan. According to one popular legend, he was a prince of mogolistanskim Kipchak, on the other - the Kazakh biy of a kind Dulat, the governor named Toleby, nicknamed "Kaldyrgach" ("Swallow").
 
Sometimes you can meet local visitors, as Uzbeks and Kazakhs, for whom this is one of the most revered shrines.
 
Mausoleum of Yunus Khan (late XV century).. One of the oldest and few in the monuments of Tashkent Timurids. This - a rare Central Asian type of the mausoleum - khanaka T-shaped plan (similar to - in Iran) Dome is located on intersecting arches. The Mausoleum was not decorated. The only piece of decor - pandjara main facade - wood and ganch. The carved front door was moved from the parsed quarter mosque in the 30 years of the twentieth century. Interior decoration are stone pillars, under the arch traces of small stalactites (mukarnas). The Mausoleum has reached our days with loss. Yunus Khan was a descendant of Genghis Khan. Inverted in feudal strife, he then spoke with Temurids, then against them. The mausoleum was built by the sons.
 
Hazrat Imam complex (XV century). Gives a more complete picture of the prevailing architectural forms of the medieval Tashkent. The ensemble was formed on the grave of one of the first imam of Tashkent, a famous scientist, scholar of the Koran and Hadith Khazreti Imam's (his full name - Abubakr Muhammad Kaffal Shashi). On behalf of Sheikh whole area in this part of the old town was named Khazreti Imam.
 
The Mausoleum of Muhammad Abubakr Kaffal Shashi (1541-42 years) Abubakr Muhammad Kaffal Shashi - one of the first imam of the Muslim world, the famous Muslim scholar, a connoisseur of the Koran, Hadith, Islamic law and lexicology. He died in 976/77 was, his tomb became a place of worship, she was venerated and popular. There is a tradition that for him to worship at an underground passage from another part of town went to the saint Sheikh Zaynaddin-bobo. Existed for the legend that his nickname al Kaffal ("locksmith") he received for making amazing lock whose key is weighed half a kilogram architectural structure, erected over the tomb of revered cleric - Mohammed Abu-Bakr Kaffal-Shashi (who died in X. ) - is also included in the ensemble of Hazrat Imam.

 
Building of the first buildings of the mausoleum of the tenth century did not survive. In the XVI century on the ruins of the old building was re-erected Kaffal Shashi. The Mausoleum is a rare type of multi-mausoleums khanaka middle of the XVI century. with an asymmetrical layout. It has preserved its unique decor for Tashkent - majolica of the XVI century from a historical inscription containing the name of master architects and date of construction. The main facade has kept some in an arc facing plitochek arch entrance portal. The present mausoleum has a rectangular shape, it is crowned with a dome on a cylindrical, slightly tapered drum. In the window inserted wooden lattice-pandjara. Tomb of Sheikh fenced off inlaid wooden pandjara. Kaffal-Shashi is a rare instance of religious institutions in the XVI. with an asymmetrical layout. The building looks bleak, not only on what decor was partially lost, but also from the fact that there is a mismatch of the plan and the overlap. This suggests either a break in the construction and completion of its unskilled craftsmen, repair or restoration of the lost of overlap.

 
This monument is of great historical and artistic value.

 
Barak-Khan (30 50g.g. XVI.). Construction of madrasas was conducted in several stages.
 
First, the mausoleum was erected "Untitled", and later the mausoleum dedicated Suyunij Khan. Third stage - construction of the portal and hujras. Decor in madrassas Barakhana was distributed only on the main sites - the input peshtak, the portal and the dome of the mausoleum Suyunij Khan. According to historical sources skufya dome was covered with blue tiles and decorated with star-shaped drum girih so mausoleum called "Kok Gumbaz" ("Blue Dome"). During an earthquake in 1868 the dome was destroyed.
 
On the left side of the portal strengthened board, which provides that the seat of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Uzbekistan.
 
Tilla-Sheikh Mosque (1856-57 yy). Located opposite the Barak-khan. It was built by Kokand Khan, Ahmed Mirza Kushbegi. In the courtyard of the mosque are both winter and summer facilities for prayers, not high minarets, utility rooms and a library. The mosque is decorated with carved mikhrab niche, pulpit, the window openings.

 
According to the legend here kept the golden hair of Prophet Muhammad.
 
In the library building, in a special safe, where supported by a certain temperature and humidity, kept the famous Koran Osman, dating from the VII century.
 
Namazgokh Mosque (mid HIHv). In the past this was a suburban area where people gather on the main religious holidays. Now this building houses the Islamic Institute of Imam Al Bukhari. Its main façade faces the inner, is now a small courtyard. The building is a building in the form of an elongated dome with wooden galleries aivan. Walls of the mosque built of baked brick tile. The interiors are not decorated. The only part of their - mikhrab niche in the main hall, a small flat, with stalactites - mukannas in the vault. Over his cut pandjara. In modern times an architectural monument underwent several minor modifications.
 
Near the mausoleum Kaldyrgach-beating is another - The Mausoleum of Sheikh Hovendi Takhur. It was erected in the XVIII - XIX centuries on the foundations of an earlier mausoleum of the XV century. Sheikh himself was the closest ancestor of the highly esteemed in the Central Asian mystic Khoja Ahrar.
 
In the building there is room for the funeral rites - ziarethona, followed by a smaller-sized tomb - gurhona. On behalf of Sheikh surrounding area became known as Sheikhantaur.

 
Yunushana mausoleum - built after the death of the ruler of Tashkent Yunushana (1415 1487g.g.). In terms of the mausoleum has a T-shaped. Khujdras (cells) are located in two floors. Outside the dome of the hall is set on a cylindrical drum. Hall disclosed openings on three sides. He conceals many mysteries - it was not discovered burial, and the doors were amazing music, as between their wings had been cleverly incorporated ancient oriental musical instruments - chang.

 
Ensemble Sheikhantaur survives today with a big loss and deformities.
 
Kukeldash (XVI century).. The building was built on a hill near the city walls. Builder madrasa is considered vizier of Tashkent khans (1551-1575 gg.) Nicknamed Kukeldash (foster-brother of Khan "). Madrassas traditional composition: an extensive yard obstroenny khujdras with darshanoy and a mosque in the corners. Construction was built of baked bricks. Decorated with only one of the facades. The portal remains of tiled decor - glazed bricks and majolica. The main facade presented to a high portal, bunk balconies and corner turrets - guldasta. At the end of the XVIII century madrasa was used as a caravanserai, served as the Kokand khans fortress and place of execution.

 
Madrasas have repeatedly suffered from earthquakes. During the last strong earthquake in 1966 destroyed the second floor and almost completely collapsed minarets.
 
After independence, were held Restoration raboty.Segodnya Kukeldash madrasah is an existing institution.

 
Jamia Mosque (XV-XIX cc.) Was built next to the madrasa Kukeldash. It was the only sample in Tashkent Friday mosque courtyard type of the late Middle Ages. The main building is a cubic volume that is covered by a dome with four little windows in the low drum. The monument is preserved in part. In 2003, the mosque was re-tuned, which were applied modern methods of construction and finishing. Now, the mosque looks elegant, festive, where there are many more people. This contributes to a good location - and the center of the city, and nearby is one of the oldest bazaars in Tashkent, which are an integral part of the East.
 
Complex Zanghi-Ata (XIV-XIX cc.). Located in the village Zenghi-Ata near Tashkent. The ensemble was based on the burial of Sheikh Ah-Hodge, nicknamed Zenghi-Ata, which means "black", who lived in the late 12 th century. He was the fifth murids Sufi Hodja Ahmad Yasawi, who was regarded as the spiritual head of all the Turkic tribes of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. According to legend, the beginning of the ensemble was laid by Amir Timur, who built the mausoleum. The ensemble consists of a large garden, a complex of buildings, which includes a mosque, madrasa, a minaret and mausoleum Ambar-bibi. Entrance to the ensemble is through darvazahanu is portal-domed building with turrets, guldasta at the corners. Madrassas surrounds on three sides by trapezoidal courtyard in front of the facade of the mausoleum Zanghi-ata. Madrassas built from the square brick, with lots of small rooms - hujras. In the south-west side is a mosque type Namazgokh. Front of the mosque in the early twentieth century was built the original minaret-tower. Mausoleum Zanghi-ata is located in the cemetery. From the south entrance is greened path to the mausoleum of Ambar-bibi.
 
Complex Zenghi-ata is an active and enjoys great respect and reverence among Muslims.
 
The Monument of Courage "(1976). Installed in place of the symbolic epicenter of the earthquake of 1966, in memory of the courage of local people, respect for all those who helped rebuild Tashkent.

 
"Square of Friendship of Peoples" (1983) In its center is a sculpture dedicated to the civilian heroism Shaahmeda Shamakhmudov blacksmith and his wife. In their appeal in Tashkent began a mass movement on adoption of children evacuated during World War II. Thousands of residents have followed suit.

 
Concert Hall of Friendship of Peoples (1983) The largest in Central Asia, the palace is a sculptural group. Was built to celebrate the 2000 anniversary of the city. Having restrained decoration outside, he strikes the interior splendor. There are various festivals, premiere performances, tours of famous artists.
 
The Bolshoi Theatre (Bolshoi) them. Alisher Navoi (1947) This is the most elegant theater building - each of its six foyer can be called halls of the museum, where exhibits are hand-finish walls and ceilings. Here are the carvings and ganch, wood, stone and wall paintings. In addition, the temple of art on a daily basis raise their curtain for more than 10 theaters in town: Theatre of the Uzbek Drama, Russian Drama Theatre, Musical Comedy, Puppet Theatre, Operetta, "Yesh Guard, two Theatre for Young Audiences, Ilkhom Theatre, Theatre-Studio" Aladdin, "etc.

 
Zoo. It is located near the Botanical Garden. The combination of the world's fauna and flora to create a unique atmosphere of perception of nature.
 
On the territory of the Tashkent Zoo (22.8 ha) contains more than 300 species of animals. A significant part of the animals at the zoo - the representatives of the local fauna. Collected 420 species of birds, 93 species of mammals, 67 species of fish. Vast terrarium inhabited by numerous species of reptiles and amphibians.

 
Under particular scrutiny is aqua zoo. Total volume of water - 150 tons. In the fish contains a large number of inhabitants of the seas and oceans, including sharks.

 
Zoo is a member of the Eurasian Association of Zoos and Aquariums. He maintains relationships with more than 80 foreign countries.



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